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The ISIM will support research means: issuing reports which render scholarly designed to stimulate interdisciplinary research fellows at various levels and in a number of research results accessible to all; training and that concentrates on social, socio-economic, capacities. They will contribute to the long-term refresher courses for those who require knowl- political, and intellectual developments in the joint research programmes, create ateliers for edge about Islam and Muslim societies and Muslim world, particularly those that have so far the execution of short-term research, or conduct communities in their work; and support for been under-researched.

The programmes are individual research. There will be ample room for institutes which initiate training for those who comparative in the sense that they encompass visiting fellows who will serve as bridges have frequent contacts with Muslims in their two or more geographical regions of the Mus- between the ISIM and the outside world. Sabbat- profession. Each programme consists of a num- ical stays will be made available for staff of par- ber of thematically linked projects. The pro- ticipating universities and research schools.

Organization grammes will be set for a maximum period of Application forms and information on the crite- The Board is the highest authority of the ISIM. The ISIM develops and conducts research on five years. The selection, design, and execution ria for evaluation and selection will be distrib- It is responsible for establishing strategy and social, cultural, economic, political and intellec- of these programmes are the responsibility of uted. PhD students are sponsored Education ticipating universities. For the year the emphasis is laid upon recent and contemporary within the framework of these programmes.

Stokhof as developments, historical dimensions are taken The output of the programmes will comprise cation are to create a pool of expertise on devel- Director in Charge. He has drafted the constitu- into account. A report, translating tions, practices, and doctrines upon which the Founding Partners on June 30, Ateliers Muslim societies.

They aim at the ious degree levels and in various formats, in Apart from the drafting of documents, expertise of academic institutes in the West and strengthening of interregional cooperation in particular at the Advanced and PhD degree they are involved in the search for an Acade- in the Muslim world.

ISIM sounding board meetings. The opening day of the Institute is to the opportunity to engage in research work in and abroad. With the support of the Minister for the Netherlands for a maximum of three Development Cooperation subsequent meetings will take place in cities months. These distinguished fellowships pro- Library Support, The Academic Committee will advise the of the Muslim world with respected centres of learning.

These meetings mote cooperation with leading figures and Documentation and Board and the Director on all academic affairs, in are fundamental to the ISIM for they serve as a medium for introducing institutes in the field of the study of Muslim Information particular on the design and execution of the the ISIM to relevant scholarly audiences, as well as for reflecting upon societies and communities.

The International Advisory Committee institutional plans and policies. The second meeting is scheduled for who have demonstrated the ability to conduct collections in the Netherlands related to Islam will serve to anchor the Institute in society and to March and will take place in Cairo. Research Academic Staff developments thereof. These world. Institute firmly on the map.

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The Academic Direc- libraries, documentation and information ser- doctoral and other fellows, who are recruited tor is appointed to the ISIM Chair at Leiden vices, news agencies, periodicals and other pub- nationally and internationally. The database will provide up-to- tute. The Chair-holders are to select, design, and its activities.

Since the early s, Western Europeans and North Americans have demonstrated increasing concern over the latest chapter in the Western encounter with Mus- lims. The first, promoted by Christian fun- mon language, distinctive customs and tradi- influence the government, the media, or the movement of people is a menacing threat to their cher- damentalists, the Jewish community, and a tions, recognizable styles of dress and food, elites in the West. They have very few channels ished ideals of a homogeneous Western society.

For large number of politicians, identifies America among other cultural distinctions. These are of communication to policy makers. A variety of many, it increasingly represents a significant demo- as grounded in Judeo-Christian values. Its crit- easier to identify and particularize, than the factors hamper effective participation in the graphic shift that posits a major cultural challenge ics note that such a definition threatens the effort to inculcate ideas because they are more political process including the lack of experi- whose precise consequences are unpredictable and separation of religion and state, maintaining tangible.

At the same time, he was aware that ence of participating in political activities, the unforeseen since they require a variety of adjustments the current power structures, confining Bud- ethnicity could be very divisive given the diver- fear of the consequences of political involve- by the host countries and by the new immigrants. The difficulty would be ment, and lack of experience in grass roots faiths and values to the periphery. The second in determining whose language, customs, or organizations or coalition-building. Thus while cultural distinction pro- groups in order to bring about change and turies.

Azzam al- armed conflicts influenced the collective and of an un-Islamic environment. Options promoted for survival of erners and tend to colour their relationship. His assessment is that while not all of encounter between Muslims and the West. The States, and Canada admonishing Muslims to people in order to facilitate recognition, that the obstacles that appear in the relations of first is the assumption of world leadership by eschew integration into their new environment the true identity is determined by the manner Muslims with non-Muslims in Western societies the United States with the consequent creation or leave the West lest they lose their soul in its in which a person or group of any race, colour are fostered by Muslims, the more dangerous and empowerment of the state of Israel and the wayward ways.

The second is the growing Muslim lims to live outside the abode of Islam, as long Some Muslims have become active in the through melting into Western culture and emigration, settlement and acquisition of citi- as they have the freedom to practise and prop- mosque movement in the West and are defin- abandoning some or all of their Islamic identity. Still others are of the opinion ing the mosque as the centre around which Others insist on ignoring these obstacles by established countries of European migration that Muslim presence in the West provides Muslim life should revolve.

For a growing num- resorting to isolation and hiding in cocoons. In adopted country marks the boundaries of faith. On the one hand is million Muslims living in the West. The majority mandment to call people to Islam, they also prayer, the act of praying, donning Islamic the generation of the fathers and mothers as in Western Europe were recruited as temporary help to redeem Western society from its evil garb, refraining from eating pork and improp- well as grandparents who have an emotional guest-workers with the full expectation that ways and restore it to the worship of God.

The emigration to the Americas during from a variety of quarters. Bilgrami direc- eated boundaries that help immigrants feel tions whether or not they accord with their new the last quarter of the twentieth century came tor of the World Federation of Islamic Missions, secure, distinct, and outside the bounds of pol- environment.

On the other hand is the genera- initially from the educated classes seeking Karachi, Pakistan prescribed a programme of lution. For some, conforming to Islamic prohibi- tion of the children and grandchildren who higher education, better economic opportuni- Islamic education that inculcates an ideological tions has become a conscious act of witness of have no emotional ties to the homeland of the ties, and political and religious freedom. Since identity: a distinctive faith despite public ridicule and a fathers, and find little of value in their customs then, asylum seekers and refugees have signifi- a.

To maintain the means whereby Muslims in demonstration of steadfastness and persever- which are seen as counter-productive and an cantly augmented the diversity of Muslims in the West remain conscious of their identity; ance in the face of social obstacles to their per- impediment to progress in the society in which the West. In the process, Muslim communities b. To ensure a dynamic element which can face formance. Muslim immigrants and their chil- they are born. Thus the new generation is in have been transformed from collectivities of the onslaught of the Western cultural influ- dren are aware of the necessity of dealing with need of a new paradigm that can provide a migrant, predominantly male labourers to ence on the minds of Muslim children; prevalent pre-formed stereotypes, honed over comfort zone as it carves a space for Muslims as immigrant families, from sojourners to settlers, c.

To ensure that Muslim minorities remain con- centuries of conflict and competition. They also part and parcel of the West. Still open to discussion is whether have become a permanent fixture in the West. Islam to non-Muslims; damentalists Jimmy Swaggart and Pat Robert- these Western traditions are broad enough to Each Western nation has a particular relation- e.

To serve as a means for the propagation of son , and Zionists Bernard Lewis, Daniel Pipes, guarantee Muslims, not only freedom of reli- ship with its immigrant population that has Islam, which is the sacred duty of every Mus- Steve Emerson, and Charles Krauthamer. In gion and the right to propagate their faith, but been conditioned by its colonial legacy, its his- lim; Europe, they have to cope with the rise of xeno- also to enjoy the culture of their choice. Are torical memory, and its traditional perception f. To ultimately raise a strong ideologically- phobic statements of right wing European Western democracies liberal enough to make of its former subject people as well as its her- integrated community for the consolidation political parties such as the Front Nationale in room for Islamic input into the national consen- itage and perception of its role in the world.

France, Vlaams Blok in Belgium, Republikaner sus, or will there be an insistence on a Judeo- Each is in the process of developing policies in Germany, and the Centrumpartij of the Christian culture? Will Western pluralism or and models for the treatment of its newest citi- The conscious effort to define Muslims as dis- Netherlands. These founder of the Institute for Muslim Minority threat accompanied by violence against Mus- of Western society? He, too, worried lim life in Europe and North America as well as be marginalized, ostracized, studied and evalu- foreign, encouraging their integration, promot- about Muslim loss of identity in the West.

To acts of terrorism perpetrated by Muslims have ated, always judged as lacking, and always the ing their assimilation, or forging them into dis- protect the community from disintegration, he heightened tensions. Canada, prescribed developing Islam as an ethnicity, a religion that is devoid of integrity and pro- which identifies itself as a multi-cultural soci- erecting ramparts not only to keep the non- gressive values, one that promotes violent pas- Dr Yvonne Y. Haddad is professor of Christian- ety, encourages and subsidizes the mainte- Muslims out, but more importantly, to hold the sions in its adherents, a menace to civil society, Muslim Relations, Center for Muslim-Christian nance of distinctive cultures.

The United States Muslims in. Thus he identified important ideo- and a threat to the peace loving people of the Understanding, Georgetown University. Current- ern identity is to be fused, one that fosters par- Muslims in Europe and North America are in: Muslim communities in non-Muslim States. Some Conflict Resolution in Sudan discussion has also taken place regarding the institution of a new constitution, which would include the political clauses of the Agreement. Although there is no easy solution to the conflict in Sudan, one aspect seems clear: if there is to be peace within the country, a political settlement must be both achievable and sustainable.

The civil war that has raged in Sudan, apart dom can lead to a meaningful development the gap between the various states in particu- mission is to be established to monitor cease- from a brief respite during the Jaafar Nimeiri and progress which would assist in the solu- lar, so that within a definite period, a parity in fire violations and the disengagement of period since , is estimated to have cost 1. A Peace Agreement was signed on ple of Sudan. Islam is the religion of the market focus. Nevertheless, the the productivity of farmers and agricultural sent a choice between either unity or seces- ria Defence Force and the South Sudan Inde- basis of rights and duties shall be citizenship, improvement, and the government has given sion.

As women became more productive in edying of economic disparities and social outline a number of political issues, which, if conditional step if negotiations are to take home agricultural pursuits such as growing injustice. On the crucial issue of sharia, the parties to the acreage can be devoted to growing cash crops represent a segment of the range of opposi- April agreement decided on a complex formu- which earn foreign currency through exports. The central ques- Ethnicity and religion are seen as integral fac- la.

Laws of a general nature that were based on The country, however, faces difficulty in tion is how likely is the agreement to result in a tors in the war: a predominantly Arab-African, general principles common to the states looking towards an expansion of its productive measure of success? As Dr Atabani, Secretary Muslim North against an animist or Christian would apply at the national level, provided base when previous productivity has been low.

Certainly ethnicity and reli- that the states had the right to enact any com- The lack of basic commodities such as petrol ernment is not divine. The government is gion are major contemporary factors, but their plementary federal legislation on matters holds back efficient production. In a origins are historic. The Missionary Act peculiar to them. By and with the institution regions. Sudan looks to the Middle East, China, and within Sudan and in identifying a number of of sharia law, tensions were exacerbated.

From The terms of the rights and freedoms accord- Malaysia to provide external funding, but that key political aspects, all which could help that time, State Minister of Foreign Affairs ed to every person are far reaching and would may not be quite so readily forthcoming now lessen tensions and offer the possibility of a Gabriel Roric believes, minority rights became not be out of place in a liberal democracy.

Yet it would be Hasan Turabi asserts that the emphasis in the trouble. In a sense, this right grants the and West consider to be responsible for their who gains control over the natural resources of general population individual freedom. It also economic miseries and whom they eye with the south. Yet ethnic diversity is complex in Sudan. The remit million people. According to an earlier census General to the Congress, describes the system of the Council is broad.

The Western pluralist model is economic planning, confidence building, groups. These groups can be further divided seen as too divisive but the Sudanese system peace nurturing, policy making and political into smaller sub-groupings, speaking over does involve a range of representatives from mobilization. It is accountable to President el- different languages. Around 60 per cent of trade unions, professional associations, tribal Bashir and provides a link between the govern- the population are Muslim; 15 per cent are chiefs and so on, who tend to become involved ment and the Southern States.

In order to be Christian and the remainder adhere to tradition- at the state level. Ideas can be individualistic viewed as non-partial and impartial, its compo- al religions. The demographic composition has without party discipline but this structure is sition must reflect an appropriate balance Heather Deegan is head of International Studies, been altered through years of civil war and eco- regarded as more democratic than previous between the different parties in the conflict.

School of History and Politics, Middlesex University. One cause of conflict within the country has conflict resolution. The locations under their command. However, 1. It is not easy to say exactly when Islam first established itself in our region. To understand the influence of Islam in in Senegal Senegambian societies, one must first trace its complete crisis, rests on the erosion or the redefinition and toroodo minor nobility. He played a significant role in Sene- moment, the regions, and the ethnic groups, favouring multi-ethnic and bases its existence not on some Muslim countries, between and For his disciples, the political cations provoked by Islam and the Senegambian cul- on a religious conviction which puts the com- Oumar was initiated into the tariqa way tijaan.

Work being the same for erhood for West Africa. He edge of the Sahara, which enabled it to benefit idarity is no longer based on ethnic member- Gidimaxa, Bundu, Khasso and Kaarta. His was first a wandering marabout before decid- from trade between North Africa and the Bilad- ship; it transcends it to favour the community of repeated calls for an uprising of the Muslims of ing to make a pilgrimage to Mecca. Afterwards es-Soudan, the Black African countries.

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It exerted faith. Muslim communities exist in networks Kajoor, Bawol, Jolof, Fuuta Tooro, and Saint Louis he settled in Saint Louis, then at Tivaouane control on some of the commercial routes along which are within and beyond states. Their politi- against their rulers mobilized the governor of where he established his Zawiya. Today, this which gold and slaves were transported from cal appeal transcends national frontiers. After several skir- Haj Malick launched a vast programme of pros- horses in the opposite direction.

He appointed Arab traders carried products, male and Islamized area of Senegambia by attaching the forces eastward. In , he seized the bambara marabout teachers at the commercial stops female slaves, and a religion — Islam — to this part northern regions of the wolof country to the kingdom of Senegal before defeating the along the railway and in the cities, thus impart- of Africa. In the 11th century, the importance of toucouleur country.

He tion to Senegalese Islam. His subjects followed his and offensive action when confronted by tradi- agara following the insurrection of the peul of Ababacar Sy succeeded him and example. The distinctive face of the first wave of tories. Of the marabouts who followed in the foot- He had to confront the opposition of his two Islamization restricted itself to court Islam: well- steps of Oumar, three deserve mention: Maba younger brothers, El Haj Mansour Sy and read marabouts — usually Arabs or Moors, with a The failure of the marabouts in their attempt Jaxu Ba, Cheikou Madiyu, and Mamadou Lamin Abdoul Aziz Sy.

With them the phase of warrior Islam opposition had taken a political turn: the Caliph es depending on their rural religions, were total- did not put an end to the holy wars or jihad. Mus- ended. The beginning of lim communities continued to revolt against the the jihad adventure briefly but to no avail. This confrontation within the activities to the Atlantic coast and the mouths of French West Africa in On the one hand it , credited with great erudition and pean trading posts multiplied, as did wars and and put an end to the denyanke regime, which marks the end of armed opposition between the a deep sense of justice and political compro- raids within and between the kingdoms.

In they accused of paganism. In fact, while exerting Muslims and the traditional aristocrats following mise, succeeded his brother in He too effect, war was the means of producing slaves tyrannical power, the denyanke practised a lax the victory of the expeditionary forces and, on had to confront the insurrection of the late and one consequence of the strong European form of Islam. They accused them of pil- exploitation. He is the moral migrations of certain peoples and social groups. It was introduced the principle opposition party to the power of resistance movement led by the marabouts.

This The toroodo revolution of was thus a there following the reform movement initiated the President of the Republic during the s. Its instigator was by Mactar-al-kabir Kunta, one of the greatest Accused of being at the instigation of the attempted to seize power in the Senegambian Souleyman Baal, while Abdel Qadir Kan assured scholars of Timbuktu in the 18th century. In bloody riots of 16 February , the son of this kingdoms, is known as the Marabout War its success. Initiated by a Moorish marabout, Nasr-al- Tooro with the establishment of the Muslim Africa and to purify the message, he sent numer- nization, was imprisoned for a year.

The One of them, Bounama Kounta, arrived in Kajoor The main commemorative religious festival was short lived. The traditional aristocracies toroodo authorities sent missionaries and war- at the beginning of the 19th century. His excel- of the tijaan is the celebration of the birth of the enjoyed the armed support of the slave traders riors throughout the whole of Senegambia and lent qualities as a trader and his erudition gained Prophet Mohammed, the Gamou, which is an of the coastal trading posts who had an interest lent their unfailing support to all Muslim com- him access to the royal court in Kajoor.

Atlantic slave trade. In spite of their brief success traditional aristocracies. As did the colonial admin- the marabouts and the Muslim communities with the beginning of the colonial conquest, of the brotherhood. In fact, the qadir brother- istration, the Senegalese government sends a had, for the first time, succeeded in mobilizing opened a third sequence — that of the jihad of hood was subdivided into several, more or less strong delegation.

Demographically speaking, the are immersed in partisan political quarrels. The the following characteristic traits: a warlike, mili- Qaddiriyya is the smallest of the great Sene- multiplication of political parties and manifold tant orientation; an increasing hostility towards One figure totally dominates this sequence: El galese brotherhoods. His initiative was continued by various opposed to the others. El Haj Oumar was born charismatic leaders.

Each of them marked out The Niass de Kaolack branch was founded by today in new forms in the face of the economic in Fuuta Tooro around into a family of his own territory for his religious undertaking. Certainly his style ly in the Gambia and the north of Nigeria. The party which would later become the Progres- branches of Mouridism, notably the young himself in creating a political party opposed to marabouts developed a particular relationship sive Senegalese Union UPS. His importance in marabouts looking for economic and financial Senghor, Niass was a political player of the first with the colonial administration and their own the history of the Mouride brotherhood lies in opportunities and for lucrative political patron- order.

The great success of this branch of the marabout way of representing the peasantry. It was also during this caliphate that the The organization of the brotherhood is hierar- States, notably in Chicago and Washington DC. It relies on the relationship of submission rural masses. On pline and its capacities for mobilization and marabout, Cheik Ibra Fal, called Lamp Fal ed with the intensification of social movements, the other hand, the marabout undertakes to economic entrepreneurship, it has the most , who founded the sub-brotherhood of the notably strikes by workers and students.

For the save the soul of his disciple. He must also act as influence. In spite of critical episodes and seri- Baay Fal. His name is closely associated with first time, the urban crises were now combined his intermediary with the bureaucracy and ous confrontations with the colonial administra- that of the founder of Mouridism. Because of his with peasant unrest, which thanks to the unfail- modern institutions.

He must help him in time tion, by directing the development of the noble, warrior background as a ceddo a tradi- ing support of the marabouts had always been of need. Even if the relationship tends to favour groundnut industry the product of colonial tional Wolof warrior , he symbolizes the link contained.

The causes of this were: the end of the marabout, the latter does have his duties exploitation it was able to interfere in political between the old Wolof political formations and French subsidies to the groundnut industry, towards the taalibe. From their marabouts taal- affairs by very quickly granting itself a privileged the new communities of the brotherhood. His which was henceforth aligned at a lower world ibe civil servants derive the support needed to position. The ceddo and the slave warriors rushed increasingly frequent recourse to brutal meth- form of appropriating Islam of certain Sene- assures them control of Senegalese commerce towards this opening.

Senegalese streets in the centre of the Senegalese capital way of life: long hair, wide leather belts encir- peasants from the groundnut basin to the Islam has followed varied and unstable paths, are the bridgehead of their influence. The holy cling their loins, multi-coloured gowns, half a towns and towards commercial activities.

The seventh son of the brotherhoods, in its idioms and its areas of to one earth the Bawol and to one ideology rhythm and beat and an expressiveness in danc- founder, Abdou Lahat Mbacke , predilection, it is attempting to construct an and source of inspiration: Mouridism, the cen- ing which is now found in contemporary mbal- took charge of the grievances of the peasants identity removed from the influence of the rul- tral values of which are the cult of work, success, ax dance music.

Of the totality of the teaching whom he publicly defended, notably at the ing class and the ruling party. If the Mouride discipline and absolute obedience to the mar- which issued from Ahmadou Bamba — the piety, annual Magal in Touba. Their devotion, support while developing autonomy for himself and internationalization rooted in its own val- The bawol-bawol reference, the mouride dedication and commitment to the quest and to and his community. Indeed, he was the archi- catching. Probably the convergence of the dif- expression, drawn out on a holy land Touba , mulation of the brotherhood.

Like the other tect of the urbanization of Touba, the centre of ferent brotherhood identities is the principal and captured completely in a monument, the brotherhoods, the Baay Fal sub-branch has a gravity where a mosque was completely fin- obstacle to developing so-called fundamental- mosque and its minaret, offer an identity Caliph General and has been fragmented into ished under his caliphate. He constructed an ist religious movements. This would probably which is exhibited throughout Senegal. Every year, the community and its leaders. He lived for a certain dispute arose regarding the succession importers of household electrical appliances number of years at the Kajoor court.

On the between his brother, Cheik Anta Mbacke and rice, small industrialists, haulage contrac- death of the damel of Kajoor in , he settled , a prosperous businessman, also known tors, etc. The features that bear traces of Mouride identity. He masters of all the urban markets in Senegal and 1. Aux origines de la vie politique Although he only viewed his actions in a principle of absolute submission of the taalibe throughout the markets of the world, through moderne Paris, Karthala, pp.

See Boubacar Barry , Le royaume du Waalo. He accelerated the with an unrivalled security. Paris, Maspero, ence alienated him from the colonizers. Paris, where he stayed from to This groundnut basin to reach the sereer and the city The secular marabout, Abdou Lahat, was suc- 3. Paris, memory, constitutes the framework for the The succession to Mamadou Moustapha the imam of the mosque of Touba for two Karthala, p. His caliphate was of short duration 4. See D. He preferred meditation and the Africains, Vol.

Benefiting from colonial favour of President Abdou Diouf. He passed and Clerics. Abdul Bokar Kan and Futa Toro, beings. Oxford, His return to Senegal was of short duration. No longer 6. Paris, he returned to Senegal to remain under house failed to control the brotherhood, Cheik having a secretary to maintain a link with politi- Le Sycomore, E.

Paris, Karthala, and D. The only grew. He has thus succeeded in Political and Economic Organization of an Islamic French that Bamba was not plotting a jihad. Oxford, Clarendon Press, and Saints They allowed him to found his holy city of production and the commercialization of estation of the last protected forest in the west- and Politicians. An Essay on the Organization of a Touba and, in , to make a start on the groundnuts and salt, as well as fishing and ern centre of Senegal — Khelcom.

Nevertheless, Senegalese Peasant Society. Cambridge, Cambridge great mosque of Touba in which he is buried. The relationship between religion and politics, between church and state, has been a well rehearsed issue in Mus- lim thought and practice, because Islam emerged fully into history as a dual tradition of church and state, and and the Islamic Response in Africa because as such Muslims have been less sanguine than Europeans about making a rigid separation between the secular and the sacred, or between the public and pri- vate domain.

By virtue of such history and by reason of the subsequent Western secular expansion in the Mus- lim world, there is widespread reaction to the legitimacy of national secular governments among contemporary future of west and Central Africa. If Islam is prop- culturalism were available to Muslims, it might fruit of the original insight about keeping Cae- Muslims. Some of that reaction goes back to the effects erly understood, if its youth inoculated with calm passions and provide instructive lessons sar and God separate, about ensuring religious of colonial rule.

British civilisation and British ideas are utilised by about the liabilities of religious territoriality in freedom against state power and jurisdiction. British administrators and merchants, it will give Africa or elsewhere. In that case, the secular That insight became twisted into religion as The Colonial Legacy England a wider and more permanent influence state, shorn of its anti-religious bias and con- individual enlightenment and free speech, as a The Western colonial encounter with Muslim upon the millions of the Sudan than can possibly ceived as a pluralist apparatus, might be less rights issue under state jurisdiction, in fact as a Africa had a direct impact on the pre-colonial be wielded by any other agency.

In general the lar case of north Nigeria and its large and signifi- spiratorial odor from Christian support for such a public merit. So Muslim critics are correct that encounter helped strengthen the tradition of cant Muslim population, the British targeted the state. It turns out, however, that events have pre- rights without God are meaningless, but mis- Muslim religious and political integration, either Muslim political elites, the emirs, as indispens- empted the issue, with the regime of General taken to require from that a religious state.

The administrators Babangida acting in to allow sharicah court Muslims are right that if we only have human tion and collaboration. In tives. After several years as an observer, Nigeria merely of numerical preponderance. The OIC was set up fol- rights as such is meaningless in that environ- would be no undue interference in religious in Nigeria, the resident colonial officer presided lowing the Third Conference of Islamic Foreign ment precisely because the individual has institutions and local customs, but instead the over a meeting called by Muslims who headed Ministers in March, and was registered with been assured no God-given rights.

That is why colonial administration would work through the Native Authorities set up by the British. The the United Nations in February, A number human rights must presume a public tribunal those religious structures to govern the people. In theory, the French demanded mission schools. The meeting, held at Yola, the aspirations. Yet we have to say that the reli- total surrender and commitment from their provincial headquarters, considered how these to sovereign nation states which are Muslim by gious view also needs qualifying.

However, religion the brakes are removed from political strated effect. In practice, however, bureaucratic Authorities. The colonial administration backed somewhat incoherently, India and Lebanon, excess and in turn applied to freedom and or military confrontation was too costly a way to the Muslim demands against missionary objec- which have significant Muslim populations, have commitment, in effect pressing political expe- achieve permanent subjugation, and so the tions, for abolishing the religious instruction not been allowed to join. In other respects the diency into the service of a false absolute.

French decided to invest in the Muslim rosary classes. Alex- expense, and treated to lavish official blandish- Integration or Separation? Muslim learning was endowed, schools The issue of integrating religion and politics need for trans-national solidarity has pitted Mus- government by habit preferred the useful to supported, colonial administrators trained in plunged post-independent Nigeria into a major lims against the West as the source and guardian the moral and would, therefore, require the Arabic language and literature and in Islamic constitutional controversy when the military of the secular national state, a state that divides moral to be useful.

Muslim tradition represents subjects, Arabic works collected and translated, government of General Babangida, who ruled Muslims and sets at naught the just claims of the it differently, arguing for the proximity of and libraries furnished with Islamic books, man- from to , enrolled Nigeria as a member ummah. Governments gratitude and respect of their Muslim subjects, menical grouping of Protestants, Catholics and even in the West where they have chosen to that anoint themselves with religious warrants which in many significant places they were able African Independent Churches.

CAN issued a immigrate, in the words of legal manuals, endanger themselves. We need the safety wall to do. And, in like manner, all who are wardly with the contrasting logic of the colonial to Muslims set it on the Muslim side of the fault not [Muslims], being accounted as of one faith, system as the propagator of Islam. Ultimately, line, with Christians wheeling and dealing on a when opposed to them [i.

Willis James Professor of lim agents it had successfully raised and trained, pose. For example, the Kaduna Branch of CAN gious belief, they also may be said to be one dar Missions and World Christianity, professor of History, handing over to them the fruits of power and the published a statement asking the government [i. Yale University.

Cited in Lamin Sanneh , The Crown and strengthened with the decision to conciliate and courts. A certain identity of interest came to forcing a catch upon Christians by challeng- Conclusion Denver: Westview Press, p. Cited in Sanneh, The Crown and the Turban, p. Niels Kastfelt , Religion and Politics in Nigeria: of two options: either colonial rule could contin- law.

The debate as it has been conducted in of the separation of church and state to allow a A Study in Middle Belt Christianity. Too much is at London: British Academic Press, pp. Report in Nigerian Tribune, Friday, 21 October, mally through an equally strategic handing over have reacted with high decibel slogans about corporate, non-doctrinaire institution to allow In so far as Britain pluralism and multi-culturalism, and with strate- it to fall victim to Enlightenment scruples 5. Cited in The Guardian, 27 January, The 6.

Digest of Moohummadan Law: Containing the authority described it in the s as follows: ephemeral, tactical skittishness. Neil B. Baillie , reprinted, Government as one of the most important in the consequences for genuine pluralism and multi- ment and free speech is in one sense the spoilt Lahore: Premier Book House, , pp.

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The legislative elections of June have enabled an apparently new political map to be drawn up. These three parties constitute the current majority in the Assembly — a majority which gives Presi-. Islamism dent Zeroual a degree of room to manoeuvre. For its part, the parliamentary opposition is made up of parties occupying about a hundred seats. Some of these parties are very old; oth- ers have appeared more recently.

The former are characterized by the charisma of their lead- culture and gender equality. Generally speak- the GIA and it is no coincidence if the govern- himself favourable to the emancipation of ers, the leaders of the national movement. Through their participation in political Contrary to that of his rivals, Mahfoud Nah- lution in its socialist sense. This movement has given ment and not opposition to the government, sions.

As in the struggle which opposed the modern Islam. As far as the ical stage. The guerrillas, led by the GIA, are, of parties on the political scene. The Islamist showing itself open is it? He is encouraging com- socialism in the case of the MDA. In addition surrounding it are also in favour of the eradica- the same practices. On the contrary, because, in the old FIS.

He now the MSP, has been represented on the allows the system to use religion in the same Edited by Tsugitaka Sato political scene by its charismatic leader Mah- way as it uses secularity. None of these contra- Hardback pp foud Nahnah. The last elections are there to prove that Islamic cultures have inherited and Contents Physically, the Sheikh resembles any other Nahnah is the man of the moment.

He has suc- developed a legacy of urbanism that — Introduction Sato Tsugitaka. Nah- civilizations of the Middle East. Popular Coexistence and State neatly trimmed, he gives the impression of nah knows how to bend his shoulders to In contrast to well-organized states Oppression in Ottoman Syria membership of a modernist elite which is nev- achieve his final objective: to wait and compro- such as that of historic China Islamic Abdul-Karim Rafeq.

In fact, Hamas em- mise in order to share power legally. N e t wo r k Execution and Bribery Miura Toru. If the radical Te l. Islamists return to the political scene even Fax 08 99 having a formal structure. But until Networks in Sixteenth-Century Fes It is doubtless for this reason that Sheikh under a different banner , they will unquestion- E-Mail books: now, most studies of Islamic society Mohamed Mezzine.

Nahnah will very soon distance himself from ably contribute to a change in circumstances Keganpau. Construction in the Eastern Islamic or political calculation? We shall never know. According eminently political, the game played by moder- 1 Oldlands Way rural and urban areas and led to state Darussalam Iik A.

But instead of using its newly acquired power to install democratic principles throughout Algeria, the Islamist movement fell victim to its own aspirations. Today, as Algeria observes the tenth anniversary of the October riots, certain conclu- sions are self-evident. Many of this group were former students of other political parties, even making a mock- The Riots voice of the impoverished. Now, the reformist ideas of Belhaj, exacerbated the problem with his and substandard housing. Those who took to youth — those who failed in school and in the the Shoyoukh are represented by many mod- repeated objections to democracy, calling it an the streets in October protested for basic labour market and who were portrayed as soci- erate Islamist parties, like Hamas, even though alien concept and a source of evil.

To them, the mosques became a an alliance with the Mashreq is no longer never visited a democratic state, Belhaj was attention if not economic reform. Additionally, the two Islamist the ranks. As such, respectability in society, something it clearly camps have both supported incremental social It was increasingly evident that for Madani opposition leaders like Ait Ahmed of the Social- owed to the Islamist movement and no one else. Several instances indicated that within Europe, trying to mobilize Algerians liv- development as a viable political entity. Furthermore, Algerians were dis- within the movement were increasingly divided and adhere to a strict interpretation of Islamic ing it.

The FIS acted as if it were a state within inclined to pursue pluralism as the opposition over political strategies and ideological issues texts. Before , militant thinkers, including Egyptian Seyyed tion. Furthermore, the FIS leaders appeared was somewhat an exception. Though active, many religious and political disagreements were Qotb and Pakistani Abou Alla al Mawdudi. This contin- These recruits have come to see Islam through when militant Islamists from their own ranks effectively challenge the state authorities when ued during the democratization process; all the eyes of Iranian revolutionaries, Afghan formed the menacing Armed Islamic Group.

Ultimately, the mosques themselves markedly radicalized the Islamist movement in died in clashes with the state police. It is also opment. Consistent with their role models, by some militants against Algerian civilians. In the absence of a charismatic lead- attempt to rescue the State from its malaise of alization initiated by President Benjedid was hood of Egypt. The differences between Djeza- ership, the Islamist movement grew but the corruption and socio-economic problems.

Unlike any other time, Algerian and in governmental policies. Behind the an Algerian scholar and philosopher. Educated tion. Generally, people were joining Islamist in the parliamentary elections and scenes, however, the FLN retained its colossal in France in the s, Bennabi later lived in institutions out of religious conviction, not for rewrite the Algerian constitution to its own powers and continued to privatize the economy, Egypt and returned to Algeria when it became political reasons.

Consequently, many found terms. Shortly thereafter, the FIS was officially relaxing laws on importation and price controls. But since the ousting of the FIS from For the vast majority of Algerians, the quick elements of Western modernity and Islamic not necessarily represent their views. This was the formal political arena, the smaller Islamist combination of democratization and privatiza- traditions and intend to reconcile these two characteristic of the membership of the FIS. Government poli- contradictory facets of Algerian life.

To Islamist leadership or to put an end to the ter- cies were benefiting a privileged few who Bennabi, Western civilization can be beneficial Rise and Fall of the FIS rorism carried out by certain extremist groups. But Bennabi has began, the Islamist movement was dominated major political force in Algeria during the ini- international debts due to a sharp decline in oil also criticized Western civilization for its moral by a single party, the Islamic Salvation Front tial stages of its democratization. Unlike other Islamic political parties, fragmentation and the spread of militant its social welfare responsibilities, particularly in what they take from it.

Bennabi has been influ- which had strict recruitment policies, the FIS Islam, however, has since undermined the health care, education and housing. The discourse on education in Egypt uses key terms such as reform and crisis. It is rare to find a society that is satisfied with its educational system. What seems important here is to analyse that which is considered as Debate in Egypt related to education. In other words, to what extent education is considered among the major causes of societal problems or, as the magic solution to these problems.

On the one hand, educational policies are ceived by its elite as characterized by millenni- generalization of free schooling should be total number of students. But this reduced pro- mainly guided by socio-economic orientations al continuity, while being constantly threat- maintained along with access to higher educa- portion confirms the social selection, and evi- and the Egyptian case is nothing but the illus- ened by civilizational invasion.

The quest for tion which should be more related to job dence from field studies has proved that a tration of the irreconcilable social choices that identity does not seem to create tremendous opportunities. On the problems in the daily life of millions of Egyp- Nowadays the agenda for policy reforms ulties comes from private schools.


Public provision of Concerning projections, some authors seem to be competitive cultural choices and is the most recurrent. One of the issues of this education is said to be largely responsible for described the reform of educational pro- the educational debate often borrows the latter relates to educational programmes; it existing inequities and inefficiencies associat- grammes as a long-term selection process aim- terms of identity.

The Islamic idiom here plays seems that language, history, civil education ed with schooling in developing countries.


This imply any prior agreement on the meaning of sionate debate, while mathematics does not a role in allocating educational services and could explain the reshaping of educational the key terms of this language. Finally, the arouse the same interest among intellectuals. The neo-liberal agenda argues that ical thinking, abstract and disconnected with society characterized by a high rate of illitera- reform as a ritual theme, the educational issue governmental resources are not sufficient for the environment. It seems that basic education cy. The latter subject is discussed less passion- in Egypt was reshaped in the s.

This is expanding schooling and not equally allocated programmes are now oriented towards a more ately than other topics. This has to do with the essentially due to re-islamization, which acts as for basic education, which concerns the operational profile to meet the needs of a social interests which are directly affected by more as a common reference than as a homo- majority and does not receive the correspond- majority of students who will be driven to work education rather than by its absence; it seems geneous trend.

It may take the form of an ing resources. Surely, Egypt will continue to produce edu- seem also to share a common view on those Rather than perceiving these processes of re- The aim of reform here is to rehabilitate public cated people, but it is said that the rate must who are excluded from education. They are islamization as stemming solely from the schools. One of the leit- successful entry into the twenty-first century. This First, it seems that those who produce knowl- issues in the debate on re-islamization, till this working conditions.

This goes too for the statement is an accurate summary of the situa- edge about education are very little concerned debate centred on political violence. This sug- implementation of a medical insurance plan tion: on one hand it reflects a deep concern; on with the relationship between their own criti- gests that daily and common practices of re- for students and for the school nutrition pro- the other hand, it expresses the nature of this cal discourse and the knowledge they have islamization, including those directly related to gramme in disadvantaged areas as an incen- concern.

As for national defence, internal secu- acquired via schooling. The only type of dis- education, were not perceived as a political tive. Analysts underline the fact that there rity and the preservation of private property, course that gives room to such a testimony threat or as a challenge to the dominant values should be an immediate impact of schooling education becomes one of the major attribut- seems to be autobiographies.

It is the assumption that the ic trends. Here On one hand, political violence is perceived invest time, money or energy in schooling on social practices which have their own tempo. Furthermore, neo-liberalism has to deal with tory based on steady regression. Finally, as for According to the defenders of this view, this It would be oversimplifying to describe this its own illegitimacy and the deeply-rooted eth- the participants in this public debate, we note has to do with the kind of pedagogic authority concern as a retreat of the State.

However, ical perception of the State. Despite the neo- the absence of some of the main actors: exercised within the school. It is said to be profitability of what is supposed to be a public liberal orientations, the State still acts as if it schoolteachers are hardly present, as if being undemocratic and based on obedience. The service, raises constraints. It sponding virtues of allegiance and patience, Reconsidering Polarities memorized without any criticism nor any should remain at the margin of the public sys- while protest movements continue to address It is quite simplistic to reduce the debate to reflection on the values that stand behind it.

For others, these ity than the standard free service. In other effect of Americanization, Islamization and sta- world. Concerning social choices too, the pre- apparatus itself. Supporters of the social agen- and it is the lack of their Islamic component create — a solvent social demand. Policy mak- sent state offers paradoxical faces. They are more concerned with On the other hand, the debate addresses the nal use of public services.

It is said that there is an Islamist plot to entations. Frequency: Monthly. Edition: International. Paper Count: Firstly the meanings of the different parameters of the model were presented; and the variation curve of the RID according to PR with different critical areas was discussed. Secondly, the model was applied to a virtual group where we show that the model can be applied depending on the gender.

Thirdly, it was observed that the model can be extended to different language models of democracy and that little use to assess the state of democracy for some International organizations like UNO. Keywords: democracy , mathematic , modelization , quantification Procedia PDF. It also looked at some components of direct democracy in Switzerland.

Therefore, the paper focused on direct democracy, using secondary sources of data. In conclusion, the research offers direct democracy as a solution to the failure of the Nigerian administrative system especially as it affects participation, developmental programmes and institutionalized corruption. Keywords: corruption , direct democracy , national development , Nigeria , participation Procedia PDF. This method is based on Support Vector Machines, a mathematical algorithm for pattern recognition.

Our implementation evaluates countries in the period between and The algorithm introduced here can be used for every concept of democracy without additional adjustments, and due to its flexibility it is also a valuable tool for comparison studies. Keywords: democracy , democracy index , machine learning , support vector machines Procedia PDF.

At the core of analysis is the question, how stable and adaptable are established democracies, new democracies, and political and societal actors?

Search results for: democracy

The idea of development-democracy as implying the strong linkage between economic development and political democracy appropriately describes the distinguishing characteristic of this new demand for democracy in Africa. The theoretical study examines the political and philosophical foundation of the idea of development-democracy and the arguments presented to support the need for its adoption in Africa today.

This paper critically examines the polemic between the advocates of developmental dictatorship and developmental-democracy and argues for the adoption of the latter in Africa. The paper sets out to expose for the political and philosophical foundation of developmental democracy maintaining that only democracy can facilitate development. This argument is supported further by the claim that both democracy and development are two sides of the same coin in the sense that the two are both ethical concepts. The paper also maintained that the only way by which democracy is worthwhile is when it is developmental.

It posits that when genuine democracy is adopted, genuine and sustainable development can then be attained. Keywords: democracy , development , polemic , principles Procedia PDF. In this paper we discuss the relationship between them. The logic has taught us that there is only one relationship between an object and itself. To clarify the relationship between Islam and democracy, at first we must examine the meaning of Islam and Democracy.

Islam is a religion which has ideas about politics and governance. The politics in Islam includes both individual and social affairs, to achieve worldly and heavenly blessings. Conclusion: If one considers democracy as content, it does not accumulate with Islam which is content. But if democracy means a structure and style of governing, then its content could be Islam. And can you speak of democracy as the best model of governing?

Answering this question, we can talk firstly about the nature of democracy and realize it as a way and mechanism not as a philosophy of identity and secondly we can refer to the nature and functions of Imam in Shiism and thirdly we will focus on the age of Ghaybah Or concealment of Imam. In such a time we can or have to combine domination of Islamic Faqis Islamic Jurists and democracy which is known in Shiite Iran for instance as religious democracy. Olu-Owolabi , Fayomi Oluyemi Abstract: The political and societal orders face the awesome task of overcoming the difficulties which lead to growing tensions and conflicts in Africa.

But in political perspective, democracy is looking for the equal participation right of the citizens in political decision-making process. In this definition of the democracy emphasis is on equality of the people based on the governing rule and the natural social and political rights of every member of humankind. This notion of democracy by no means is a self reliant idea and the need of an ideological basis for approaching to this idea is inevitable.

In this paper we are trying to define the inter-relations of democracy and its philosophical basis to Islamic fundamental ideas. Our approach to this topic would be a philosophical ideological one. This signaled the beginning of the journey into the Fourth Republic. The return has received popular endorsement by the electorates as the level of enthusiasm was high due to the yearnings and expectations by the electorate that democracy will bring about the much-desired change required by the general mass.

As democracy would allow for popular participation through periodic elections and so on. The paper examines democracy, leadership, and challenges of good governance in Nigerias Fourth Republic. It utilizes secondary source of data and content analysis as a methodology. It argues that Nigerias practice of democracy over the years is marred by flagrant abuse of the principles of good governance by the ruling elite. This has posed threats to the survival of democracy due to non-adherence to one of the cardinal principles of democracy which is good governance.

The paper recommends among others that the anti-corruption law is amended in such a way that death penalties be issued to those found wanting by the law. Keywords: democracy , democratic consolidation , challenges , good governance Procedia PDF. Although democracy has spread across the world through three waves of democratization, Libya is still outside the democratic process, even recently its regime has changed. The challenges of democracy in Libya are not new, they represent accumulations over time that impeded to achieve this goal.

This paper concludes that the absence of democracy in Libya because of set of factors that include: colonial legacy, oil wealth, the lack of institutions, the lack of political parties, tribal factor and recently the spread of the armed groups. Keywords: the failure of democracy , political transition , the lack of institutions , Libya , Arab countries Procedia PDF. It was concluded that the positive contributions of democracy to economic development were more determinant than the effects that were either negative or restrictive in terms of development.

When compared to autocracy, since democracy is more successful in managing social conflicts, ensuring political stability and preventing social disasters such as famine, it contributes more to economic development. Democracy leads to an increase in human capital accumulation and increases the growth rate through reducing income inequality. It can be said that democratic regimes are the most appropriate ones in terms of increasing economic performance and supporting economic development through their strong institutional structures and the assurance they will ensure in property rights.

Keywords: democracy , economic growth , economic freedom , autocratic regime Procedia PDF. The process was actively supported by all segment of society, labour students market women, rural dweller who saw in it, the prospects of reversing the trend of political despair and in disillusionment that hither to characterized political life in Africa. The political tyranny and dictatorship while having it own clientele and beneficiaries had negative and suffocating effect on the majority of the people.

The democratic aspiration of the Africa people is not only confined to the Arena of political Democracy of election and granting of civil and political rights, but it involves the demand for economic empowerment better living standards of the people and adequate social welfare indeed, for the majority of the people democracy is meaningful only when it delivers socio-economic goods. However, democracy and development have generated enormous interest no conclusive evidence seems to be shared in Africa. In the course of this research emphasis shall be made on certain issues, such as issues of corruption in democracy in Africa, ethnic conflict and democracy in Africa contribution of women to democratic practice and women participation in political arena, is still very low, democratization process and industrial relation in Africa as factor that hinder the development of Democracy in Africa, a case study of Nigeria.

Keywords: democracy , development , dictatorship , conflict , ethnicity Procedia PDF. We adopt the concept of 'political capital' as a measure of democracy, which is extremely uncommon in the literature and brings considerable advantages both in terms of dynamic considerations and plausibility. While the literature is not consensual on this matter, we obtain, via panel Arellano-Bond regression analysis on a database of more than 60 countries over 50 years, significant and robust results that indicate that the impact of democratization on economic growth varies according to the stage of democratic development each country is in.

Keywords: democracy , economic growth , political capital , political economy Procedia PDF. The purpose of this research was to examine the opinion of university students about the possibility of their decision-making by using information and communication technology ICT. The questionnaire examined young people's values and behaviour associated with e-democracy and the related decision-making.

Students are most active online when it comes to finding information connected with their academic responsibilities, but less frequently take part in democratic processes in society, both at the national and local level. E-democracy as a tool can be learned in programmes of Human Rights Education and Citizenship Education.

The theory of Religious intellectualism was utilized in Constitutional Revolution and Islamic Revolution. To instate Democracy in Iran, in compare with West and sunnis, the theory of Religious Intellectualism is being used differently. Instead of focusing on Civil contracts, he relied on Sirah Ughala Tradition and accepted many of the current conducts, e. Democracy and Political Parties and acknowledged the authority Hujiat of them even in absence of Infallibles.

These two are the most notable experiences of shia political thoughts about Democracy within the last years. No matter how we look at it, and regardless of the variant, most leaders in the world today wish to be seen or labeled as Democrats. Perhaps, its attractions in terms of freedom of allocation, accountability, smooth successions of leadership and a lot more, account for its appeal to the ordinary people.

The governance style in Nigeria since cannot be said to be different from the military. Elections are manipulated, judicial processes abused, and the ordinary people do not have access to the dividends of democracy. The paper seeks to address the existing failures experienced under democratic rule in Nigeria which have to transcend into violation of human rights in the conduct of government business.

The paper employs the primary and secondary sources of data collection, and it is highly descriptive and critical. Deji Abstract: Prolonged military incursion in Nigeria politics which favored the oligarchy brought agitation for democratic rule it exacerbated ethnicity integration of minority for fear of domination.

The advent of democracy ushered in new breath of life to Nigerians from the shackle of military oppression to democratic governance. Democratic rule became a mirage as a result of prevalent insecurity in Nigeria; effort to bring lasting peace to all sections of the country had not yielded positive result till date. In the process of struggling for democracy among ethnic groups in Nigeria, they had instituted various militia groups defending the interest of their identity due to unequal distribution of wealth by military junta.

When democracy came on board, these various militia groups became demons hunting democratic institutions. Quest by the successful government to find lasting solution has proved abortive. The security of politics which guaranteed stability is not visible in Nigeria, what we have now is politics of security. The unrest in Nigeria today has cripple socio-political and economy of the nation; the growth of economy favored elites without meaningful impact on the common man. This paper focus on the effects of democracy on Nigerians and, how security under democratic rule has hindered dividends of democracy since till date and way forward.

The source is strictly base on secondary source from textbook, newspapers, internet, and journals. Keywords: democracy , interest , militia , security Procedia PDF. Development of electronic democracy should be a strategic dimension of Georgian governance. Electronic democracy is based on electronic governance and implies modern information and communication systems, their adaptation to universal standards. E-democracy needs involvement of governments, voters, political parties and social groups in an electronic form.

In the last years the process of interaction between the citizen and the state becomes simpler. This process is achieved by the use of modern technological systems which gives to a citizen a possibility to use different public services online. For example, the website my. A higher standard of accountability and interaction is being established. Electronic democracy brings new forms of interactions between the state and the citizen: e-engagement — participation of society in state politics via electronic systems; e-consultation — electronic interaction among public officials, citizens and interested groups; e-controllership — electronic rule and control of public expenses and service.

Public transparency is one of the milestones of electronic democracy as well as representative democracy as only on mutual trust and accountability can democracy be established. In Georgia, institutional changes concerning establishment and development of electronic democracy are not enough. Effective planning and implementation of a comprehensive and multi component e-democracy program central, regional, local levels requires telecommunication systems, institutional public service, competencies, logical system and informational relevant conditions for public involvement support.

Therefore, a systematic project of formation of electronic governance should be developed which will include central, regional, municipal levels and certain aspects of development of instrumental basis for electronic governance. Keywords: e-democracy , e-governance , e-services , information technology , public administration Procedia PDF.

After the first wave of Arab Spring, among the frequently mentioned ideals of self-recognition, awakening, democracy, autonomy, freedom etc. So the question of what makes a government legitimate has come to the forefront. It seems that the civil initiative or autonomy and clearly democracy are still far away from us.

The need to a savior is overpowering. This cultural and traditional and almost hereditary miss orientation of the people, both the ones who are playing the role of god and the ones who believed the inevitable need to be freed by someone else, seems to be leading the Arabs to a new autocracy or worse. Middle East is waiting for the ex machina to operate. But what it gets is a spreading warfare. This darkness falling down on Middle East under the concept of spring may be explained by the confrontation of the concepts of emancipation and liberation.

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So the question is, if the era of emancipation really over or is there still a chance for autonomy and grassroots democracy operating as constituent power? Keywords: autonomy , awakening , civil initiative , democracy , emancipation , legitimacy , liberation Procedia PDF. The article suggests that the Internet is expanding political opportunity in which contributed to a more diverse discourse. It is depending on how users used it; for democratic or non-democratic outcome. The Internet has been a key instrument in exposing human rights abuse, corruption, organizing protests and mobilizing voters during election campaigns.

It therefore pushes for transparency and accountability and thus increasing the rise of deliberative democracy in Malaysia. While there are some elements of an emerging deliberative politics, it is also clear that the Malaysian online political discourse is acting as moderate forms of discourse as the sphere increasingly exist in a chaotic and diversified online discourse. Yet, the online sphere still allows citizens to discuss public affairs. When the public opinion is strong enough, it can influence public policies to ensure that they reflect the public interest.

It is suggesting an increased space of negotiation and contestation among the previously muzzled offline situation. This is a big step in the progress democracy in Malaysia. Based on this paradigm, the traditional perception of the role of public information such as system functional element and on the possibility of media regulation will be exposed, due to the public nature of their activity. A critical argument will then be displayed from two different perspectives: a the formal function of the current media information, considering that the digital age has fragmented the information access; b the concept of a constructive democracy, which reduces the need for representation, changing the strategic importance of the public sphere.

The question to be addressed based on the comparative law is if the regulation is justified in a polycentric democracy, especially when it operates under the digital age with immediate and virtual communication. The proposal is to be presented in the sense that even in a twenty-first century the media in a democratic rule of law still has an extremely important role and may be subject to regulation, but this should be on terms very different and narrower from those usually defended.

Keywords: constructive democracy , media , digital age , public sphere Procedia PDF. The data consists of four speeches of Su Kyi delivering in different places within the year broadcasted through the website of US campaign for Burma. The supreme leader, Allah ceded the right to govern to his prophet and whoever would ever rule he would have to govern as a deputy of Prophet of Allah and he will not have the right to deviate from the basic rules of law and constitution.

Islam gives the basic importance to the public opinion to establish a government and make the public confidence necessary for the government. The most effective way to gain the trust of the people in the present to build national institutions is through the vote. Vote testifies in favor of the candidate and majority tells us who is more honest and talented.

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