Usually, the festivals lost; in an April article about the ultimately successful community resistance to the proposed May Day Festival in Carbondale, IL, reporter J. Drawn in by the cultural if not financial success of Woodstock, organizers were often either naive newcomers or opportunists looking to cash in on the zeitgeist.
Many, such as the trio of promoters in Carbondale, had never organized a festival before, while others, such as the Warner Bros. The problems began early. The festival team, led by promoter Raymond Filiberti, spent most of the summer fighting an injunction meant to prevent the festival from happening at the Connecticut ski resort of the same name. What followed was the festival equivalent of Waiting for Godot , with thousands of fans crowding onto the grounds for a concert that would never happen.
America’s Music History: The Jazz Age
They also got really, really stoned; as a later dispatch from reporter Joseph B. Thankfully, there were no deaths at Powder Ridge, but there were casualties. In June , Filiberti was indicted on six counts of perjury by a Manhattan grand jury. In January of the following year, he was sentenced to four years in prison. As more and more festivals were canceled or failed, and as the spectre of addiction, Watergate, and the continued quagmire of Vietnam further soured the brief optimism of Woodstock, even successful festivals started to feel like relics of a bygone era.
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Not much, this time. However, songs that focussed solely on opposing the Vietnam conflict were uncommon until The turning point was the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Johnson to send hundreds of thousands of troops to maintain a non-communist South Vietnam. As US troop levels increased from 59, to , between and , songwriters directed their anger at the president. It was later released by a Motown Records subsidiary.
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King was not the first person to express this view. For decades, Civil Rights groups had struggled with accusations of being unpatriotic and communist, leaving many black artists to tread cautiously. Following the Tet Offensive, public support for withdrawal from Vietnam increased from 19 to 55 per cent. The horrors of the war were becoming unignorable.
The History Of Pop Music In 5 Defining Decades
A jellied gasoline mixture, it stuck to skin, causing severe burns when on fire. With public support for the war waning, withdrawal became a big issue in the November presidential election. Richard Nixon won the election and soon became the focus of protest. Three key events raised pressure on Nixon. Each of them inspired records.
Four students were killed by the Ohio State National Guard. It was just one of more than 50 songs released about Kent State. Third, in the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret study on the history of the war, commissioned in , was leaked to the New York Times by military analyst Daniel Ellsberg.
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By the s, anti-war songs came from a range of backgrounds and perspectives and permeated popular culture. Anti-war sentiment even spread into the traditionally conservative country genre. Anti-war sentiment fuelled a large discography, but so did anti-communist sentiment. Opinion polls showed vast support for presidential policy across the Heartland and Southern states, in areas with ties to agriculture and religion. Patriotic songs supporting the government and troops filled the country charts and radio stations from the JFK to the Nixon eras of the war.
The country group sang:. The US flag was an important symbol in patriotic songs.
Basic Yearly '80s Music Timeline
And, like the flag, previous conflicts were often alluded to as patriotic symbols. But most of them supported Calley. Would the public have been so lenient? Born in , her rise to fame came in the s after the Great Depression. She worked with many of the great jazz singers of the time, sold over 40 million albums during her singing career and won 13 Grammy Awards.
Sadly, the jazz era ended somewhat abruptly with the Great Depression in the s. However, the music genre lives on today and forms an integral part of American music education. This partly was due to the fact jazz was considered too much to be entertainment rather than art form. However, the popularity of the genre continued to rise, and many music students were drawn to the syncopated rhythms and relaxed feel.
High schools and universities made up many of the jazz groups around in the s. Professional jazz musicians became involved in teaching the younger generation and it fed the demand for further jazz education resources. By the s, many American tertiary institutions had implemented jazz programs, which were expanded to include vocal jazz, improvisation and performance style. Today, students can expect to learn about the history of jazz and how it has evolved.
It is used as a way of explaining cultural history in America, including the social, economic and political aspects of the Jazz Age. Many jazz musicians of today have been inspired by their early forefathers and the genre has withstood a test of time, despite various other genres becoming more influential in society, such as rock and roll. Jazz education today teaches not just a musical style, but the cultural history of a nation.
Related Music of the 1980s (American History Through Music)
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