Other Temptations of Jesus: Lenton Studies for Adventurous Christians

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Friendship Ministries Program Guide A Resource for Leaders This helpful handbook presents the Friendship Ministries philosophy, describes the program, and provides practical tips for starting a group. Special Needs Smart Pages Helps churches of all sizes reach out to individuals with special needs, including autism, cognitive brain disorders, and physical disabilities. Learn how to recruit and train leaders for a special-needs ministry; how to meet the physical, social, emotional, and spiritual needs of disabled children; and how to help these children discover and use their unique gifts.

Includes specially tailored Bible lessons, teacher devotionals, planning tips, training articles, and inspiring stories. Reproducible pages. A how-to guide to integrate children and youth with special needs into church programs and activities, including worship. Plus, these relational, cooperative games can be used anytime wherever they fit into your schedule or to fill an on-the-spot need!

Overflowing with expert insights from more than 20 successful ministry leaders, this book guarantees practical solutions for every area of your Sunday school ministry. Children can scribble, color, or add texture and stickers to pictures. These coloring pages are age appropriate. Questions for guided discussion are included. A practical, easy-to-use guide for adults working with elementary age children!

This resource focuses on how to live a life of faith in the world today. Features sixty exciting craft projects that children will enjoy making while learning about the Bible and building their faith. Teachers will enjoy clear, step-by-step instructions, along with a materials list featuring green or recycled products. This volume is updated to include information on the growing concern around the internet and predators as well as a new section on vulnerable adults. Discipleship Resources.

In spite of squawking at inopportune times, crawling in the side aisle or narthex when sermons ran too long, drawing on the bulletin, dropping the heavy Book of Common Prayer on his toes, or standing on chairs, her son was present, aware, and sharing in the Eucharist. This is how her little book for little hands came to life. This engaging book helps young children to follow the liturgy and participate in ways that are appropriate for them.

Beautiful images and age-appropriate language follow the liturgy. Coming in July. Grace Episcopal Church, Oak Park, Illinois has become a model for how to engage all generations in an experiential and fully inclusive Eucharistic liturgy. Ready-to-use liturgies with music, for all seasons of the church year. Coming in November. The Great Family is a visual retelling of the original lesson from The Complete Guide to Godly Play, told with revised text and original art. The book recreates the experience of hearing this seminal Godly Play story.

An ideal supplement to the Godly Play classroom, to be used by storytellers and children during response time and also by parents at home. Full-color throughout, with original paintings based on the materials used in the Godly Play classroom. Coming in September. Parable of the Good Shepherd is a visual retelling of the biblical lesson as taken from The Complete Guide to Godly Play and told with revised text and original art. The book recreates the experience of hearing this core and possibly best-loved, best-known Bible story as a supplement to Godly Play or as a stand-alone bedside reader.

For Christian educators, Christian schools, vacation Bible schools, parents, grandparents, godparents—anyone who desires to engage in sharing faith and biblical stories in any setting, especially all those in the Godly Play community: trainers, storytellers, teachers, parents, and children. These activities help teach Bibles verses, Bible skills, and Bible messages. For use as arrival activities for Sunday school and other church classroom settings. Coming in August. Offers a culturally relevant, hands-on way to explore faith stories with a broad range of ages.

This book offers the methodology as well as 30 Old Testament and 24 New Testament stories with lesson plans. This ecumenical resource may be used in all settings and gatherings. Includes take-home sheets for family study and conversation. Includes practical tips, FAQs, and sample forms NEW Safe Sanctuaries in a Virtual World Joy Thornberg Melton and Michelle Foster This practical, easy-to-navigate book for churches and church-related ministry agencies is designed to assist leaders in safely and responsibly using different types of technology in daily ministry.

It explores social media and cell phones; copyright in the midst of the Internet; the growing problem of pornography and obscenity; and the unique situations presented in campus ministries, preschool and after-school ministries, itineracy, sports, and campus ministries. Includes practical tips, tools, FAQs and sample forms to help you strengthen your communication and use of multi-media in the scope of your ministry for the 21st century.

Attention is also given to selection, hiring, and the supervision of staff as it relates to social media and other technology for work-related purposes. Upper Room. This reproducible resource consists of very simple Christmas dramas that can be performed by kids of all ages—the younger children can participate in rhymes and recitations that require very little or no speaking, while older children will enjoy the speaking and narration parts. Most drama selections take no more than ten minutes to perform, and the number of children can vary as needed by the size of the church. Props and scenery are minimal, and selections can be performed with little rehearsal time.

The tween years are an important time in faith development. On the Go provides contemporary resources that engage tweens and build community while emphasizing a relationship with God through Jesus Christ. On the Go: A Magazine for Tweens is slick and splashy; the colorful page tween magazine engages young people with timely, thought-provoking articles. The large, colorful, easy-to-use posters 24" x 36" bring the sessions to life while the CD-ROM includes materials and reproducibles that enhance discovery and application.

Learning Labs include kid-tested Bible Discovery Paks, lively gizmos, CD with music and sound effects, and unique sensory teaching tools. Everything you need to connect kids to Jesus—in fun, unforgettable ways! The Preteen Quarterly Kit has everything you need for one teacher and 10 students in one convenient box. Buzz helps you take the sting out of teaching Sunday school for 5th and 6th graders. Tweens get to choose the activities, so they are never bored! Each quarter, tweens learn Bible truths they will remember for a lifetime.

Buzz takes students and teachers on a journey to explore eight attributes of God. FALL Skirmish Explore provides opportunities for small-group relational discipleship that is biblically based and instrumental for spiritual formation to help ground preteens in their faith. Explore establishes routines that will move them forward in their journey and prepare them to face a world desperately in need of the Savior.

Explore consists of eight books of 6-week discipleship studies. Each book culminates in a milestone celebration to encourage and recognize spiritual growth.

God with us by Lynda Alsford

Grapple Preteens need the truth. Based on real questions asked by real to year-olds—Grapple is a fun and fearless way to search the Bible for answers and build a solid faith foundation. The series that gives faith answers through interactive puzzles and games. Helps older children ages 9—12 understand and learn about essential elements of worship.

Through working the fun, challenging puzzles and games, children will become familiar with each particular element. Great for Sunday school or midweek programs. Dwell approaches the whole Bible in a way that ignites the imagination and engages kids on a deeper level, breaking through their busy minds and producing moments of awe. By learning how people in the Bible must have felt and experienced things, kids can step into the Story.

This promotes both long-term retention and deeper understanding. The story drives the weekly lessons. The six-session units for grades 6—8 are easy to lead and full of great content to get young teens thinking and talking about faith. Use them to help your group explore and express their faith. Order one Student Book per participant. It is not required but suggested that each leader also have a Student Book in addition to a Leader Guide. What Is Baptism? What Is a Christian? What Is Communion? What Is Pentecost? Teach teens the entire Bible in 6 years using our best-selling Sunday school study!

Quarterly components Grades 7—12 Bible Lessons for Youth Bible Lessons for Youth is a comprehensive 6-year Bible-to-life curriculum that helps teens apply the Bible to their real life. Its teacher-friendly format is built around a step-by-step sequence with thought-provoking activities designed to help youth understand Scripture and apply it to their individual experiences. Contains options for younger and older youth. Leader Guides feature a facsimile of each page from the Student Book and step-by-step teaching plans for easy planning.

Teens need to experience God actively, firsthand—in a way that relates to their lifestyle and how they communicate. Every week, Encounter provides a complete, four-step lesson plan. Each step contains two options, allowing teachers to choose the activities for their teens. Student pages from the student books and video, audio, and posters from the resource packet equip teachers to easily lead activities while engaging students to participate fully. Order one student book per participant.

Order one per classroom. Order additional copies of the week Encounter—The Magazine for students, available in sets of 5. Youth Sunday School Life shaping. Faith forming. Building the foundation of a life of faith. Claim the Life. Lessons begin with Tending, an intentional ritual to help youth develop closer relationships with others and with God. The planned Teaching content focuses on one word or phrase significant to the Christian faith.

Teachers may choose a lesson plan from the two provided. Visit AbingdonPress. For Older Youth—Senior High Grades 10—12 : Student Bookzine Student Bookzine LinC contains Bible-based topical lessons on current issues that matter most to teens. LinC can now also be used on your electronic device.

Each LinC lesson includes Bible prep material for teachers, a lesson that can be used with middle and high school youth, learning activities, life application discussion questions, and a reproducible student hand out. Subscribe and you can download new, 6-page single issues of LinC from Cokesbury. Contact subservices cokesbury. WGPY activities and stories are middle school age-appropriate ages 12— Payand-download price is based on attendance.

Did you know you can purchase and download individual issues of LinC? Great when looking for a small group resource on a particular topic or event. NEW Grapple Jr. High Wherever your junior high students are in their spiritual journey, their inquisitive minds have a need for Christ-centered biblical depth. Grapple will help teens ages 12—15 examine tough topics in meaningful ways so they can understand and own their faith. Lessons feature interactive, hands-on elements to get them talking, moving around, and seeking answers. A powerful examination of how the Bible was developed.

Through captivating stories, readers will be introduced to the issues of canonization, biblical transmission, archaeological discoveries, translation, and modern textual criticism. Beacon Hill Press. Youth Disciple is a comprehensive week study of the Old and New Testaments. Youth will read daily from the Scripture assignments, then meet weekly with their small group. Order one Youth Study Manual for each participant. A youth study that traces stories of displacement and relocation from biblical times to the present with the goal of helping young people embrace the Christian legacy of acceptance.

This study, written for leaders, comprises five two-hour sessions designed to engage, educate and inspire new thinking about the strangers in our midst. This resource is part of the 4-week churchwide Sunday school study that. Includes leader helps for individual or group study. Being open can lead one to safety, depth, and freedom.

On the other hand, in this world of social media and instant connectivity, being too open can lead to danger and success-derailing temptations. Includes video teachings, discussion guides, promotional materials, reproducibles, and more. Connect challenges teenagers to think differently and more deeply about worship. Push the boundaries of their understanding and their definition of what it means to worship God with this video-based, conversation-driven series. Teens will discover that true worship is about loving God and loving others, trusting God in tough circumstances, and following God daily, faithfully, and passionately.

In addition to video teachings, includes discussion guides, promotional materials, reproducibles, and more. The Barefoot Way A Faith Guide for Youth, Young Adults, and the People Who Walk with Them Dori Grinenko Baker This exceptional and innovative resource invites older youth, college students, and all who care about them, to participate for 21 days in journey and experiences of youth who have encountered God and told their story. Westminster John Knox Press. Teens learn how to develop a life mission statement that helps them fully commit to a God-directed lifestyle.

Eight 3- to 5-minute video clips drawn from the Episcopal Youth Event featuring Rodger Nishioka set the stage for an engaged discussion among a group of teens moderated by Bronwyn Skov. Volume 1. Creation, The Fall, The Volume 2. Supper, Crucifixion, Resurrection. Know, Confirm, Live Credo Confirmation Credo Confirmation is a confirmation program that is not your conventional classroom experience!

It brings worship, Sunday school, Bible study, service, and church ministries into confirmation. Use Credo the way you want: over a semester, the course of a school year, a 3-year span, or however you want to plan it. In addition to print components, Credo has vast and dynamic web content for leaders and confirmands at CredoConfirmation.

Scheduling options: 18 sessions in 36 weeks school year to fewer sessions with retreats added. Clear, structured lesson outline formats meet the requirements of individuals with physical and cognitive challenges. Session Plans Lesson plans only for the 18 confirmation class sessions. Ideal for churches with multiple confirmation program teachers. Confirmation in The United 8 sessions Methodist Church is a repeatable rite. While many Two retreats churches confirm youth in early adolescence, this resource provides age-appropriate confirmation materials for older youth and young adults that reflect their greater life experience and thinking capacity.

The study is made up of six units, emphasizing baptism and Holy Communion, with multiple learning activities and discussion starters, from which the leader can choose. Also includes instructions on how to plan and implement two retreats. A quiz-show style competition based on the Wesleyan Quadrilateral. Teams test their knowledge of the Bible, church history, and traditions. Includes games for children, families, and church leaders plus youth games that review material covered in Credo confirmation program.

Get mentors and Ice breakers parents more involved in confirmation—with greater participation and more meaningful dialogue outside the classroom experience. TalkPoints helps break the ice by bridging the experience gap with open-ended questions that both the mentor and the teen read, reflect on, and respond to.

For boys or girls. Gift boxed. The scope and sequence echoes the emphases of the Study Catechism confirmation version. Congregational Ministries Publishing. Developed with the help of Episcopal educators, clergy, and theologians. The adaptable format works as a traditional 6- to week program at a confirmation retreat or conference , or as a sacramental supplement to other 2- to 3-year programs.

Designed to help older children and youth prepare for the act of baptism, this book teaches what it means to walk a Christian journey. Topics include confession, contrition, covenant, community, and connection—each coupled with Scripture and daily life applications. Chalice Press. Draw confirmation and baptism candidates into a deeper faith with this interactive learning experience. Paired with a mentor, candidates are led by groups on a journey through the seasons of life, in a variety of settings—a hospital birthing center, a school classroom, a funeral home, and more.

Archaeological discoveries, historical writings, and early-Jewish studies continue to uncover what everyday life was like back then. Like us, they struggled with temptation and sin, failure and loss, political upheaval and war, betrayal and violence, sickness and death. Lively, informative, and never condescending, this book is closely linked to the Book of Common Prayer. It covers church history, sacraments, the meaning of prayer, and ministry. A great resource for confirmation class, youth group, and high school Christian education programs. Be a renegade for the true Jesus. The study communicates the challenging, revolutionary message of Jesus in terms that are meaningful for youth.

As we prepare for Lent and the celebration of Easter, we meet Jesus again: a man who denies our preconceived notions about God. Joining his movement means coming to terms with the real Jesus, the Rebel Jesus. Each week centers on a key word describing God that changed through Jesus. Great for individuals or group study. This youth study book with leader helps combines history, archaeology, Bible study, and inspiration. A practical and inspirational study for youth during the Advent season.

This five-week resource for youth includes leader helps and provides resources for incorporating A Different Kind of Christmas. Includes leader helps. Ages 14—20 Minute Moments Students need a simple, organized way to deepen their relationship with God on a daily basis. Each Minute Moments edition works like a daily journal with 31 relevant devotionals that only take about 10 minutes.

Students read a Bible passage, chew on some questions, get some suggestions to help them pray, and then are given space to reflect. Includes material for 52 youth group programs and a host of doodle-centric prompts and sessions related to the seasons of the Christian calendar, cultural holidays, Scripture, and more. Ready-to-Go Ready-made events contain everything a youth leader needs to easily prepare and smoothly execute fun, instructive, and relevant youth activities with minimal up-front time investment.

Books feature plans for retreats, lock-ins, fundraisers, youth missions, service projects, and devotions. In addition to coordinated devotional plans, discussions, and activities, they include event accessories such as publicity flyers and parental forms. In this series: Destination Unknown Mission has 30 singleevening or single-afternoon excursions which introduce your youth to ministries, organizations, causes, and more.

The activities allow you and your group to work together to help your community, while allowing youth a way to make a long-term commitment. Also included are instructions for organizing and operating a week-long day camp for children in the community, along with a retreat to allow more reflection and visioning. There, youth will prayerfully discern ways to serve the community and make a difference. Offer youth electrifying, multisensory, soulfilling worship experiences that creatively capture their interest by blending a diverse range of ancient and modern worship practices.

Engage and move them with group participation, silent meditation, sacred symbolism, ancient chants, and contemporary Christian rock. Youth Ministry shines a revealing light on standard youth ministry practices, helps the reader to see what needs to change, is full of practical ideas that work in real churches, and includes perspectives from current youth ministry leaders. Christians should hear the phrase differently. It can be a prayer, a plea, a petition, a note of praise, or an unbidden entreaty that escapes our lips as we seek Christ for the young people we love. Using six lenses the authors detail current practices and tease out underlying questions as youth ministry becomes more self-consciously aligned with practical theology.

Games feature symbols that indicate energy levels Energy Saver to Zoomer , space needed to play, games that can be played in pairs, and crowd-pleasers that work well for 50 or more players. Includes classic games with new twists, indoor and outdoor games, teaching games, games that build community in your group, supply lists, bonus ideas, and a handy index.

Now you can do the same with this book of attention-grabbing modern-day parables i. Use these 5-minute skits to get your group members thinking and laughing, then talking about spiritual truth and how it relates to important areas and issues of their lives. Help them boost self-esteem, self-respect, and respect for others.

Help them discover their talents and strengths by trying new things. And help them grow into their true selves by pursuing new adventures and opportunities. At the end of the book, you have the chance to put the truths, principles, and practices of KidUnique into practice through a Day Experience with your child or teenager. A successful Sunday school helps them understand themselves and release their God-given abilities and talents. Uncommon Youth Ministry resources engage students with high-octane, student-friendly activities that will help youth leaders show—not just tell—the timeless truths of the Bible in a lifetransforming way.

CEB Common English Bible Life Gear for Grads This special package for graduates includes a Thinline edition of the Common English Bible with a designer cover in complementary blues, stitching, and burnishing, plus a small booklet filled with humorous and inspirational life lessons. It features 9-point type, a ribbon, round corners, heat burnishing, stitching, a gift box, plus the page booklet with content helpful to the graduate. This complete Book of Common Prayer includes a full-color, contemporary soft cover, and an easy-to-read table of contents.

This edition includes 38 pages of additional material designed to help the reader understand more about The Episcopal Church, its worship, and its prayer book. Designed to be accessible to a broad range of people, the Common English Bible is written at a comfortable level for over half of all English readers.

As the translators did their work, reading specialists working with seventyseven reading groups from more than a dozen denominations reviewed the texts to ensure a smooth and natural reading experience. Easy readability can enhance church worship and participation and personal Bible study.

This prayer book designed for teens draws from The Book of Common Prayer, prayers written by well-known Episcopalians, and ancient prayers rooted in the Bible. New, original, and relevant prayers are also offered, some by teens themselves, as well as their youth leaders. Originally released in , this page collection of prayers for youth written by Catholic high school students has been expanded. Other features include a four-page introduction that suggests multiple ways to use the book, a one-page introduction for each season of the church year, Scripture index and topic index, plus more than prayers.

The week program discusses books from both testaments—showcasing the interconnectedness of scripture as a whole while demonstrating how the covenant relationship between God and people is woven through the entire Bible. Each session includes a thought-provoking video conversation between biblical scholars that serves as an impetus for further discussion and contemplation among the group members. Covenant represents a relationship— a living, breathing conversation. And we invite you to join in it. Unlike the learning participants may have experienced in other groups, this in-depth study of the whole Bible emphasizes the biblical concept of covenant as a unifying pattern through all the books in the Old and New Testaments.

Each episode connects to an aspect of this covenant relationship, which is summarized in the heading of each participant guide. The Covenant Bible Study Kit contains everything a leader needs. Supplementing the twenty-four episodes of video are thirty additional videos available by download from CovenantBibleStudy. The Leader Guide contains comprehensive and detailed direction for each meeting experience. The guides are available from Cokesbury as a print set or individually ; or as enhanced eBooks in the Covenant Bible Study app iOS and Android for tablets and personal computers from CovenantBibleStudy.

Additional videos, downloads and applications are available on the website. Our most popular quarterly series Use in multiple settings. Adult Bible Studies Used by more than , people weekly, this popular curriculum is based on the Uniform Series—which enables Christians across the country and around the world to study the same Scriptures and same topics on the same Sundays throughout the year. We can all literally be on the same page.

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Adult Bible Studies presents information in a theologically sound manner. Ideal for a variety of settings, Adult Bible Studies lessons are Bible-based, Christ-focused, and United Methodist-approved curriculum for use in adult Sunday school classes, midweek Bible study, and small-group studies. For quarterly session titles and topics, plus ordering information, current event supplements, sample lessons, and more—Visit: AdultBibleStudies. The step-by-step lesson plans in this lesson commentary make teaching the Uniform Series easy.

Students will understand Scripture, relate Scripture to contemporary living, and be challenged to respond with positive actions. Includes a Faith in Action life application section. Lessons for a full year include analysis by leading scholars, four quarterly Bible background articles, a Teacher Helps article, and four quarterly maps or time lines. Also available by annual subscription. This ongoing day-by-day Bible study series is presented in quarterly segments.

Biblebased, Christ-focused, and United Methodistapproved, this resource helps individuals develop the discipline of studying the Bible every day. It coordinates with the lesson themes of Adult Bible Studies listed on the facing page. Follows the Uniform Series. Each quarter contains 13 weeks of lessons, including verse-by-verse Bible exposition, discussion questions, and ready-to-use resources to enhance study. Teachers will appreciate the ease with which they are able to produce quality lessons. Students will appreciate how easy the lessons are to understand.

It provides 52 weeks of study in 1 volume and combines thorough Bible study with relevant examples and questions. Each lesson has 8 pages of easy-to-use helps, options, and ideas, plus supplemental web resources, making it great for lesson development and personal study. Adult Bible Studies Weekly Scriptures studied worldwide A comprehensive set of teaching aids Christian Life Series This adult Bible study series offers a comprehensive treatment of the Uniform Sunday School Lesson Series with verse-by-verse exposition, guidance for the superintendent, questions and topics for discussion, teacher helps, a chalkboard illustration, an article that relates the lesson to world missions, an in-depth study on the golden text, a feature that discusses the lesson in light of Jewish history, practical anecdotes that supplement the Bible study, stimulating editorials, questions for quarterly review, and daily Bible readings.

Union Gospel Press. Based on the texts outlined in the International Uniform Bible Lessons series, this study tool provides a full year of in-depth Bible studies for personal or classroom use with invaluable features:. Current topics delivered instantly Print only what you need For small-group or Sunday school classroom settings. Faith and Life Current Bible studies with online delivery, on demand Print curriculum can take more than a year to write, produce, and move into distribution. For readyto-use lessons that connect faith to the news events and issues of today—you need the electronic delivery of FaithLink.

To learn more, contact SubServices Cokesbury. Each issue contains four reproducible pages of background information and core Bible passages on the current topic, plus two pages of suggested group activities and discussion questions. The work is already done for you. Enjoy home delivery of lessons that are completely prepared and ready to go. You can purchase individual issues of FaithLink. Great when looking for a small-group resource for a particular topic or event.

Each of the 24 volumes offered in this study series is a comprehensive verse-by-verse, book-by-book exploration of the Bible, using a 3-dimensional approach that guides students to ask three questions:. T Abingdon Press. Teacher Books contain a verse-by-verse, in-depth look at the Scripture, including background material, with word studies and history of the biblical setting, plus answers to the questions in the Student Books, application of the Scripture to daily life, discussion suggestions, and practical tips for leaders.

Choose the books you want to study, in any order. Each volume features questions; information on the historical and cultural setting, the original language, and what the passage meant for its first readers; possible life applications for individuals, congregations, and communities; and a daily personal Journey Plan for those interested in reading the whole Bible, verse by verse. The 1 Choice for More Than 20 Years Disciple Bible studies have remained the number one choice for some of the most vibrant congregations in the world— transforming the lives of more than 2 million participants!

The Foundational Overview. This first Disciple Bible study serves as the basis for all other studies in the Disciple family. For 34 weeks, Disciple covers the entire Bible. Planning Kit Study Manual One copy for each participant. This week study offers a deeper examination of Genesis, Exodus, Luke, and Acts, examining opportunities for faithful witness and service.

In the Old Testament Prophets and the Letters of Paul, this week study examines the connection between memory and identity as the people of God. Participants will find common themes, including calls to remember, calls to repent, calls for renewal, and calls for community. DVD Set In this week study of the Old Testament Writings, the Gospel of John, the Epistles of John, James, Jude, and finally, Revelation, participants will see the entire process of living toward final completion of rest and reward.

A focus on the Psalms leads naturally to an emphasis on worship in this study. Worship plays a central role in the Book of Revelation. Through a special video, Under the Tree of Life, participants will have an interactive, sensory experience of the Book of Revelation as worship. The Revelation video is intended to move Disciple participants beyond the usual understanding of the Book of Revelation. For additional information, call or visit Disciple.

Widen Your Reach With Shorter Studies These life-changing courses are available for busy people who are unable to commit to longer studies. Focusing on smaller Bible sections, or single books of the Bible, enables you to offer shorter, segmented participation in these courses. With more, shorter Disciple options offered more frequently, you can offer the transformational experiences of Disciple to more church members.

Disciple short-term studies embody the same scholarship as the major Disciple foundational studies. Disciple short-term studies use the same activities as Disciple foundational studies: independent reading, weekly small groups, and video presentations by scholars. Over a week period, participants will examine the writings of ancient and modern Christian commentators and view video presentations by leading Bible scholars.

Each title in the series consists of four studies on a common topic or theme. For small-group or Sunday school classroom settings 4 sessions each From a diverse assortment of popular authors such as Adam Thomas, James Harnish, and Dottie Escobedo-Frank. James A. Dawson Adam Thomas Josh Tinley. With the input of a diverse group of biblical scholars, teachers, and writers, these new comprehensive Bible studies offer a guide around those barriers, helping participants explore intellectual, emotional, and spiritual insights into themselves, their needs, and their relationship with God.

Immersion Bible Studies follow the pattern of clearly understandable language found in the Common English Bible. Each study is well suited for small groups or individuals. Small-group or personal study Easy to understand Uses the Common English Bible translation 6—8 sessions each. If you prefer instant delivery and e-reader convenience, you can get versions of Immersion studies right now at Cokesbury. See page 2 for symbol explanation. Learn the context of early Christianity by exploring its relationship with the geopolitics and culture of the Roman Empire.

In text and video, this study features discussions with a variety of biblical authorities.

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Includes ice breakers, discussion questions, life lessons, and more. Discovery House Publishers. A study that invites readers to explore the world of the biblical patriarchs in Genesis and journey with the ancient Israelites on their liberating exodus from Egypt to the Promised Land. Regal Books. How can you live in a way that honors God when there are so many negative influences surrounding you? These studies offer the depth and richness of Dr. Warren W. Each study includes interactive questions, stories, illustrations, and flexible formats.

This series provides a thoughtful and powerful survey of key Scriptures, combining commentary from contemporary teachers with integrated highlights from the hymns, life experiences, and complete writings of John and Charles Wesley. And for each week, engaging questions foster deeper fellowship and growth. They may know bits and pieces, random Bible stories and verses, but not how the pieces fit together.

In just one year, you can be guided from Genesis through Revelation viewing the overall scope of the entire Bible. Everyone can benefit regardless of their previous Bible knowledge. The poor are always with you. How can we serve the invisible in our midst? With firsthand knowledge from her own ministry to the poor, Sutter will open your eyes to what is happening around your very own neighborhood. When did we start believing that God wants to send us to safe places to do easy things?

He died to make us dangerous. This video-based Bible study challenges participants to resolutely follow God wherever he leads. Campaign resources in the complete kit include: 1 hardcover book, 1 study guide, 1 DVD, 1 curriculum instruction guide, and 1 church campaign marketing insert. Each study provides Scripture readings, thought-provoking questions, and memory verses for personal daily study, plus a weekly group discussion guide.

Wright In this newly completed series, the widely respected pastor and New Testament scholar N. Wright walks everyday readers book by book through the New Testament. InterVarsity Press. The Psalms have served as the central prayer and hymnbook for the church since its beginning through today. In this 2-book fourth volume in N. Fortress Press. In the volume Old Testament for Everyone series, Old Testament scholar John Goldingay addresses Scripture in such a way that even the most challenging passages are explained simply.

In this volume, Goldingay explores Psalms , where he shows us four ways to speak to God: in words of Praise, Thanksgiving, Trust, and Supplication. Goldingay provides brief commentary on each psalm and shows how each one can be relevant to contemporary life. According to the Epistle to the Hebrews, Christians are always to be on the move. Inspired by Hebrews —14, Bishop Sano examines this theme and its meaning for the original audience and Christians today.

Ellsworth Kalas. NEW Fearless Conversations Adult Sunday School Curriculum When people share stories and ask questions—relationships deepen, and people begin to see God at work in their lives and the lives of others. Looking to the Bible for truth, this easy-to-use curriculum guides participants through genuine discussion that digs deep into what God has to say.

This 2-year scope curriculum will be released in quarterly studies, spanning 13 weeks each, beginning with the first title, Why Is Jesus So Radical? Coming June The Bible is filled with heroes and rogues, from the first followers of Christ to the dissenters and critics set on uprooting the Christian faith. Some are well known. Others are not. But all have a place in the eternal story of the Bible. This study offers a close examination of biblical characters— from Adam and Eve to Elijah, from Martha and several Marys to Jesus Christ himself.

Each displays strength, courage, and perseverance—characteristics that shaped the lives of the early believers and continue to influence Christians today. How literally must we read it? Is the Bible ever wrong? Hamilton addresses these and other often misunderstood biblical themes, leading readers to a deeper appreciation of the Bible so that we might hear God speak through it and find its words to be life-changing and life-giving. This study looks at what the Bible has to say about our relationships with the earth, to plant and animal life, to each other, to descendants who will inherit the planet, and to our Creator.

Offers candid discussions on ecological problems such as the overuse of energy resources, consumerism, factory farming for food production, and toxic waste. Griggs and W. Eugene March. Each passage is followed by a highly readable discussion, with background information, useful explanations, a glossary, and thoughts on how the text can be relevant to our lives today.

Features include the ability to search, print, highlight, bookmark, save notes, and create custom desktops and reading views. Rather than covering every chapter and verse in the book, this study highlights stories that best reflect the major themes of Exodus: deliverance, abiding faith, and the goodness of a God who desires justice, freedom, and faithfulness for all.

He honored and observed the Sabbath and the Jewish holidays. To some, Communion is an empty ritual, devoid of meaning or personal significance. Because of that, low worship attendance commonly accompanies Communion Sundays leaving churches feeling spiritually depleted. This study offers a richer appreciation of the sacrament and gives insights and practical suggestions for allowing Communion to have a more prominent role in church life and the Christian formation of individuals. Includes discussion questions at the end of each chapter. Starting with Ephesians, this study engages the reader in discovering the meaning of church, ministry, and gifts—from the early church up to the present.

The Jesus Priorities 8 Essential Habits Christopher Maricle A focused, simple handbook that provides an analysis from the Gospels of the eight priorities Jesus modeled in his life and ministry. This book can be used as a personal spiritual survival guide, a small-group study, or a churchwide challenge.

Succinct summaries, questions, prayers, and Scripture charts help readers internalize and articulate these faith essentials. Upper Room Books. This study pairs the Christian faith of Bishop Sally Dyck and the scientific world of her niece, Sarah Ehrman, as they discover how the church can reach the younger generation by joining them in the race to save the environment that God created. This series can be used as a resource for personal reflection as well as a small-group experience.

Each DVD-based session begins with a video presentation by the author, lasting from 10—15 minutes, followed by filmed interaction with a small group. Walter Brueggemann presents a compelling 6-session exploration of faith and develops the contemporary significance and relevance of the Old Testament prophets as uncredentialed purveyors of moral coherence in a world of power, money, and violence.

What does salvation mean? What place does Jesus hold in contemporary faith? In this faith-formation resource, you can hear Borg in dialogue with a small, diverse group of adults as they honestly, and sometimes painfully, confront the big questions and work together toward authentic answers. This study surveys years of Western history, identifying the great upheavals that occur in Western culture and Christianity every years.

The last was the Great Reformation of the s. The next is happening now. What are the implications both culturally and spiritually? What are the key questions and issues? And, perhaps most importantly, where are you, at this moment? Might you be an emergence Christian? How can this be? And how do the healings speak to contemporary Christians?

Much of the first half of the gospel is structured around Jesus conversing with individuals or groups. Their questions, along with their discussions with Jesus, are the starting points for this study. Their questions help us explore what it means to ask our own. A broader statement cannot be made.

There, Jesus discloses a piece of his divine identity, enough for us to swallow and digest over the course of a lifetime. Learn more about each study, and additional resources such as email subscriptions for participants by visiting Cokesbury. If you are like most people, you have smaller chunks of time and more data coming at you than ever before. So, where can you turn for real insight and livable wisdom? Each FRAME study includes compelling research, full-color infographics, thoughtful insights from experts, plus provocative questions to help your small group have meaningful conversations.

Rose Publishing. Start Smaller. Multnomah Press. One Way Love Inexhaustible Grace for an Exhausted World Tullian Tchividjian Life requires many things from us—a stable marriage, successful children, a certain quality of life. Anyone living inside the guilt, anxiety, and uncertainty of daily life knows that the weight of life is heavy. We are all in need of some relief. Sadly, Christianity is perceived as being a vehicle for good behavior and clean living, rather than the only recourse for those who have failed over and over and over again.

This study shows that Christianity is not about good people getting better. Instead, it is good news for bad people coping with their failure to be good. Feasts of the Bible Dr. Sam Nadler Connect the Hebrew roots of Christianity and discover the symbolism that points to Jesus with this new study from a Jewish Christian scholar who was raised in a Jewish Orthodox home. But Jesus was looking for a group to get behind him, committed to be his voice, his hands, and his feet.

This study introduces six of the twelve men who devoted their lives to Jesus. The Woman The Bible was set in a patriarchal time a time when women were considered second-class citizens. Yet, the women of the Bible were portrayed as wise teachers, faithful followers, and strong leaders. Become acquainted with 6 of these women and the role they played in the Story of God.

Named is a series of small-group studies that tell the story of people from Scripture, exploring the mystery of faith with a literary touch. Through examination of each character, we see that their struggles, questions, and fears are much like ours. Nazarene Publishing House. Pastor Rick Warren realized it was time for change.

He told his congregation he needed to lose weight and asked if anyone wanted to join him. He thought maybe people would sign up. Instead he witnessed a movement unfold as 15, people lost. Better explores the mysteries, scandalous lines, and deep truths of Ecclesiastes and applies them to life today.

A 5-volume series of short guides designed to explore core Christian principles. In this second book in The Heart of Christian Faith series, we explore how we can best understand God, using analogies, illustrations, and stories. It provides a spiritual consideration of the difference that our belief in God makes to the way in which we think about ourselves and our world.

You can customize an exciting topical sermon series from Jacob Armstrong, coordinatimg with small groups and individual devotions. In this 4-session series, the Sermon on the Mount calls us to a radically different way of life, contrary to the world around us. Works well during New Year or Back- to-School seasons.

In a world that seems to run on money, corporate power, political power, and greed—what would our world look like if it ran on the love of God? This 4-session series helps people compare Christian values with secular values and then take action, injecting that love of God and neighbor into their community and the world. Suitable for post-Easter season, or any time of year.

Ideal for the Lenten season, or any season of the year. Companions in Christ offers a complete family of resources to support your Christian walk. Each study is tailored for the different degrees of spiritual maturity found in your church family. The resources foster Christian growth practices, including prayer, Bible study, guided imagery, worship, and journaling, all nurtured in small-group settings. Participant Book, Vol.

Faith Alive. Thomas Nelson. We fear that the depression will never lift, the yelling will never stop, the pain will never leave. In the pits, surrounded by steep walls and aching reminders, we wonder: Will this gray sky ever brighten? This load ever lighten? In this study, Max Lucado offers assurance. There is nothing more crippling than holding on to anger. Anger, more than any other emotion, has the power to consume all aspects of our lives, distort our sense of purpose, and destroy our relationship with God.

In this book, Hamilton argues that revelation comes when we realize that forgiveness is a gift we give ourselves rather than to someone else. He also contends that only when we learn to forgive others and ourselves can we truly receive forgiveness from God. Life can be hard. Prayers often seem unanswered; disasters strike; suffering takes hold. Like you, Adam Hamilton has been there. In Why? Significant, yet ordinary images bread, light, shepherd, vine, and more give us insightful ways to experience Jesus and point us to a God who wants to be known. The DVD, filmed on location in the Holy Land, allows you to travel with Rob Fuquay and actually see the places where Jesus stood while disclosing his true identity.

He employs the metaphor of walking in the light to frame a method of prayer and practice, using Scripture and tradition to inform the steps of this ongoing walk with God called discernment. Questions for reflection and discussion are provided at the end of the book. Some quickly give up the idea of adopting and are left feeling frustrated, overwhelmed, and discouraged. Those who choose to proceed often take out large loans or borrow from family and friends which adds to the pressure. Julie Gumm shares proven strategies from her own experience as well as from others that include applying for grants, creative budgeting, and fundraising that prospective adoptive parents can use to prepare for and avoid those high costs associated with adoption.

Coming January We need to remind ourselves that love is a choice, not a feeling. I Choose You Today features 31 scriptural principles that support marriage and help couples develop healthy biblically-based behavior. Built on an introductory anecdotal story, each chapter has an inspirational takeaway of not only what to do, but how to apply the principles immediately.

Thought-provoking questions create talking points for couples to explore their choices and experiences and serve to generate open dialogue of discovery. Where do you go for solace? For rest, refreshment and renewed joy? We know where to go for our kids, but where do we go for ourselves? In The Spiritual Art of Raising Children with Disabilities, Bolduc uses the metaphor of the mosaic and applies it to life as parents of children with disabilities. How do you rearrange the fragmented and chaotic pieces of your family into a perfectly whole and beautiful work of art?

Judson Press. Hardcover Far from the conventional parenting book, this will encourage readers to see fatherhood through a new lens—that of an adventurous risk-taker. Written from a Christian perspective, Blase invites readers into his imperfect, yet lovable home. Fatherhood is a risk-taking venture. Each daily devotion features a short inspirational thought, as well as a passage of Scripture. Additional pages are included for moms to record their personal thoughts as they prepare for a new arrival.

I have been an Episcopal priest for 33 years and have had extensive experience in ministering with the elderly. Now, I am growing old myself. I hate it when people are ashamed of being old. We should be proud! From age 60 to 90 and beyond, people face a time of special challenges and opportunities to draw closer to God. This book offers readers Bible-based meditations that address 7 tasks essential to living the last third of life with purpose.

When the vibrant Miss Peggy began a descent into dementia, her family faced what 35 million people face each day. A unique resource for couples who want to repair, strengthen, and shockproof their marriages. The authors bring a remarkable combination of experience: both have served in the military, are actively involved as leaders in the church, and are married with families of their own.

Their approach has already helped hundreds of military couples who live in perhaps the most challenging marriage context today. Coming August What do couples fight about most? Is it sex, money, children, in-laws, or time management? The answer is: none of the above. Couples can get into power struggles over anything. In this book, Dr. David Hawkins, best-selling author, psychologist, and advice columnist for a Christian website, argues for a paradigm shift that will take your relationship from one built on selfishness to one of sacrificial love.

Once we do that, we give up the fight, and change our hearts for the better. Coming July Falling in love is easy. But staying in love takes courage, hard work, and lots of grace. Examine what it takes to create and sustain healthy, meaningful romantic relationships across the course of a lifetime. In this study, Adam Hamilton draws upon the survey results and interviews of more than 5, couples and singles, as well as marriage therapists, plus the latest research in the field combined with the wisdom from the Bible.

Guidance through the preparation process for the Catholic sacrament of Matrimony. Also includes a Wedding Planning Guide. Convalidation services for couples who already married outside of the Catholic Church so that they may have recognized marriages within that church. The Marriage Journey Preparations and Provisions for Life Together Linda Grenz and Delbert Glover A revised and updated edition of a classic for couples about to marry, couples already married, and the congregations that support them.

It covers various family-related issues such as extended families, living together, fighting fair, money matters, sexual intimacy, and children. Furrow Pre-marriage guidance that coaches couples to pay attention to warning signs and deal more skillfully with inevitable conflicts. Ives and S. Clifton Ives These books will help couples learn more about themselves and their future spouses and address potential problem areas before the wedding.

The third expounds on curriculum theorising and its place in the social transformation process;. The fourth part is all about social transformation and how itthis is achieved in the society;. The last section is the conclusion. Chapter eight which is the final chapter of the study and it is titled Tthe Pprofundities and Rrecommendations. It brings to the forelime light the highlights of the study. It continuesgoes further to summarise the findings of the study and to make recommendations for further studies and.

The chapter it ends with the final conclusion of the study. The followingnext chapter which is chapter two is the review of relevant literature. This chapter of the study will therefore be reviewing what has been written and published about content, ideology and literature. It provides the findings of such studies and also points out lapses or gaps in the body of knowledge which has led to the current research.

This discussion, or review, of literature will be done using the following themes: the complexity of content,; the nature of ideology,; the complex nature of literature. Curriculum studies often tackle issues related to education, but whose implications transcend educational inquiry to impact the design and implementation of educational programmes. The resultis makes is that this field of study is open to various scholars to theorise on the nature of education.

Such theorising has ledt to curriculum having no universally accepted definition, since different scholars advance different definitions for the term daily. While some theorisers are busy trying to delimit the term, others are doing all they can to give new meaning to the term. Smith defines cCurriculum as an outline of what students should know and be able to do within the educational context and how the outline will be taught and evaluated, withoutnot forgetting how the educational system will be organiszed.

This means that curriculum to Smith is all about the content, how it should be taught and within what environment. March and Willis equate curriculum to content by considering it as to be subjects and since what distinguishes one subject from another is the body of knowledge within that subject, content becomes the ultimate meaning of curriculum. Lunenburg , concurring with Marsh and Willis , also points out that many researchers or curriculum theorisers often discuss or describe the curriculum as a plan or map for instruction tailored for a particular subject, course or school.

Furthermore, Marsh provides an opposing definition of curriculum by considering it asto be the totality of all learning experiences provided to students or learners so that they can attain general skills and knowledge at a variety of learning sites. This definition takes curriculum beyond the scope of content to all learning experiences thatwhich lead to the attainment of different skills at different levelssides.

This definition encompasses the different kinds of curriculum, namely: that is; the written curriculum;, the planned or intended curriculum;, the received or learnt curriculum;, the societal curriculum;, the concomitant curriculum;, the null curriculum;, the rhetorical curriculum; and the hidden curriculum. Figure 2. Within this study, curriculum will be considered as content and will be used interchangeablye with content.

This is due to the gapb identified in the body of knowledge discussing curriculum as content. Many studies and research papers have discussed curriculum as learning experiences Kehdinga, ; Kehdinga ; Khoza, ; Nhlapo, ; Jansen, ; Khanare, ; Lunenburg, ; Mugabo, , but relatively fewnone haves been done on curriculum as content within the context of this study. Hence, one of the principal motivations for me as a curriculum theoriser is the drive to fill this gapb in the body of knowledge.

Concurring with this, SLO identifies different levels of curriculum:; supra;, macro;, meso;, micro;, nano. The curriculum at the supra level deals with international trends of education such as a common European framework of reference for languages as well as. On the other hand, curriculum at the macro level deals with a curriculum designed or tailored for an entire country. It deals with the formulation of generic curricular frameworks such as core objectives, examination guidelines and content. Developing the curriculum at this level is often a challenge since various stakeholders and researchers joint hands to develop a curriculum which will be implemented nationwide.

Furthermore, the curriculum at the meso level deals with designing the curriculum at an institutional level where the specific needs of the school are taken into consideration and an educational programme is designed which suits the school van den Akker, To add to this, the curriculum at the micro level, which is the core of this study, deals with the designing of a curriculum by a teacher or lecturer so aswhich would to fit his or her class or which details what a module or course is going to entail.

Thise study researches literature modules thatwhich is are developed and implemented at this level by the lecturer. At this micro level, the focus is on what would be taught in the classroom and why it would be taught, thereby making the curriculum equivalent to content van den Akker, In other words, the manner in which learners plan their learning including personal reading, performing tasks, and attending classes amongst other things. Content is the life linewire of every educational endeavour. Without content no meaningful learning can take place. Whether the content is generated by both the teacher and his or her students or it is prescribed by the curriculum it still remains an integral part of the teaching and learning process.

Pinar defines content as what is or will be studied in schools. As such, all thatwhat students learn in a particular course or module constitutes the content of that module. Therefore, Iin every course or subject therefore there is content. Kansanen argues that content is the most fundamental concept in the teaching and learning process and it is inadvertently the cornerstone of the process.

Kansanen adds that it is generally seen as a subject or learning area. Pinar postulates that key questions relating to content or curriculum as established before include the following: What should be taught in schools? Since the process of decision making is often a long and complicated one, selecting content that meets the needs of the course and the expectations of the society is often a challenging one.

Lecturers, therefore, have to battle with keeping content relevant Schiro, Within this framework therefore this study seeks to explore what is studied in literature modules in a university in Cameroon and why such particular content is studied. Marsh and Willis point out that there are three fundamental points the nature of content, the nature of society, and the nature of the individual which determine what content should be taught in a classroom.

The nature of the content deals with bugging questions of what to select and what to leave out. The curriculum developer or content selector should be able to answer the question: is the content to be taught to the students adequately representative to the students of the reality of the surrounding world?

Since education, according to Watony , is supposed to bring freedom, create awareness about the happenings in the society and ultimately lead to change, it is of vital importance that the curriculum developer or content selector ensures that the content speaks of the happenings in the society. The second question the curriculum developer or content selector should be able to answer is: ishas the content to be taught adequately organised such that it reflects its inherent logic?

Once the curriculum developer has a sample of the content to be taught the onus is upon him or her to carefully and strategically organise it so as to ensure that the logic within the content is easily perceivable by the students. The second fundamental point, as Marsh and Willis argues, is that content selectors should take into consideration when selecting content for their courses or modules, should take into consideration or whatever the case may be is the nature of the society.

Since the society is made up of the very people who would be studying the content, the curriculum developer should be able to answer the question: is the content sufficiently reflective of a broad range of the cultural, political, and economic characteristics of the social context in which it exists so that the students may both fit into the society in the future and still be able to change the said society.

In answering this question, curriculum developers will be selecting content which has been indigenously constructed at the very least, and which will ultimately lead to even remotely change in the society and increase the lots of the people. Also, since change is the only constant thing in life, both what constitutes usefulness in the society now and in the future should be taken into consideration while selecting content.

The third fundamental point advocated by Marsh and Willis advocated was is the nature of the individual. They argue that although we as human beings are the same in most reaspects, we are also unique in our own ways. This, by implication, means that the same content cannot be equally appropriate for all students. For this to happen, Marsh and Willis statecontinues that the content selected should, therefore, be a careful and appropriate response to what can be considered collective interest and needs.

Ornstein and Hunkins argue that there are several ways of selecting content depending on what the individual intends to achieve. These models can be grouped according to their stages. SLO opines that there are four major approaches toof selecting curriculum content and theseis is are anchored on five important questions:; Wwhich objectives should drive education?

What learning experiences are most suitable to obtain the desired objectives? How can these learning experiences be organised effectively? How would the objectives be measured to know if they have been achieved or not? And finally, what is the best approach for schools or curriculum developers to conduct this process? The first question, which is anchored on objectives, seeks to know; what educational purposes should the school should seek to attain.?

The second question, which deals with selecting learning experiences, seeks to know; how can learning experiences can be selected that are likely to be useful in attaining these objectives.? The third question, which is a follow toup on the second, but deals with organising the selected learning experiences questions explores; how can learning experiences can be organised for effective instruction.?

The last question, which is about evaluation, asksquestions; how can the effectiveness of learning experiences can be evaluated.? Tyler also develops a framework for answering the four questions while selecting content. For the first question, Tyler argues that studies should be carried out on the learners and their contemporary life outside the school. Tyler further links the second question to the first in his framework to answering the second question. He points out that, general principles in selecting learning experiences should be used, but this should be anchored inon the objectives chosen since the learning experiences are dependent on the learning objectives.

In the framework for answering the third question, Tyler points out that, principles for effective organisation should be used and the elements to be organised as well as the organising principles should be well plotted out in the organising structure. Walker argued that curriculum developers always approached the task of curriculum development with their individual beliefs and values.

As such the combination of such beliefs and values often creates disputes and differences which needs to be settled before the task commences. Walker calls this platform, because this is where a consensus is reached abouton what values, or beliefs or ideologies upon which the curriculum will be built upon. To Walker, a platform consists of conceptions, theories, ideologies, aims and objectives. After a consensus is reached on the platform, deliberations begin aboutout how theseis conceptions, theories, ideologies, aims and objectives are to be used in the actual selection of content.

As they curriculum developers deliberate, key facts and alternative courses of action are highlighted,. Eisner arguesd that goals should be differentiated from aims and objectives and explains thatto him goals referred to more specific statements of intent in relation to education while objectives are the most specific statements of intentd and aims which refer to general statements of intentd.

AsLike Tyler, and Walker and, Eisner also points out there are three distinct sources from which content should be drawn:; individual;, society; and subject matter. To Eisner, curriculum content should reflect the voices of every participant in the teaching and learning process. Eisner also argues that a wide variety of learning opportunities be place at the disposal of the students through the use of educational imagination such that educational goals and content can be transferred to the students.

For such goals and content to be effectively transferred to students, teachers need to engage with a variety of techniques andas well as learning opportunities to ensure understanding. In addition,Also for this to be effective, content areas should be appropriately organised and integrated in a variety of ways. Eisner also arguesd that teachers should use aof variety of ways both to present content in class and to provide feedback to the students.

And lLastly, Eisner arguesd that the curriculum should be evaluated at all levels; that is to say both the process and the product. Marsh and Willis and Kehdinga argue that curriculum development or content selection in this case is a political process involving different kinds of power at play both in choosing what approach to use whenin selecting content as well asand the content itself.

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However,But the nature of theseis politics is not well defined. As such different researchers have different views of politics in content selection. Fullan argues that participants in curriculum development are often involved in building coalitions and political bargains in a bid to have their voices heard. At different levels of the content selection, political heavy-weights often override the choices of the teacher or lecturer whenas the case maybe to determininge what content should be taught in the classroom and this has been the case with content in English speaking Cameroonian universities.

WatonyHe further argues continues that the division between the Anglophones and the Francophones makes this conflict and these differences unavoidable in matters of education. An important question to ask is, therefore, Wwhat content therefore is accepted to be studied in literature modules and why? To fully understand what content is chosen, it is of vital importance to discuss ideology since content is often informed by ideology. Abercrombie, Adorno, Althusser and Barrett citing Marx and Engels postulate that ideology is the production of ideas, of conceptions, of consciousness, all that men say, imagine and conceive about life.

They continue by stating that ideology to Marx and Engels is the superstructure of a civiliszation or the conventions and culture that make up the dominant ideas of a society. As such the primary focus of ideology is to enforce or legitimize authority. Zizek postulates that ideology has nothing to do with illusion, a mistaken or distorted representation of its society, and is not necessarily false as to its positive content, rather it can be true and, quite accurate, since what really matters is not the asserted content as such, but the way this content is related to the subjective position implied by its own process of enunciation.

Zizek continuesous to argue that ideology is a complex of ideas theories, convictions, beliefs, argumentative procedures , a doctrine, a composite of ideas, beliefs, and concepts destined to convince us of its truth, yet actually serving some unavowed particular power interest. Concurring with this, Benhabib postulates that ideology is a systematically distorted communication: a text in which, under the influence of an unavowed social interests, a gap separates its official, public meaning from its actual intention; -that is to say, in which we are dealing with an un-reflected tension between the explicit enunciated content of the text and its actual presuppositions.

According to Akers and Sellers ideology is a set of related beliefsves about a specific issue or phenomenon or the beliefve system or pattern of an individual. In this light, ideologies direct the steps of the individuals who own them. Schiro provides an alternative definition of ideology as an amalgamation of ideas, a well-structured vision, an approach to perceiving things or a framework through which an individual or group of individuals can view the world and think it functions.

As such the ideologies of an individual or groups of people carry or contain the ability to dominate other ideologies. This is done constantly done through education. Curriculum developers want to pass their ideology onacross to others so as to maintain control over them or over a status quo Lye, Magzan propounds that finding a universally accepted definition of ideology is a difficult task since ideology entails individual levels of truth and societal understandings of truth at the same level.

Magzan continues to argue that since ideology represents a composite of ideas, beliefs and customs or assumptions, which a large number of people in a particular society hold dear at one particular point in time or another, it is difficult to hold and objective view about ideology. According to Magzan ideology means a wideage range of things to different people. To some, ideology is the generation of meaning and values in social life. To others, ideology is a body of ideas or knowledge belonging to a particular group of people, race, class or school of thought.

Better still, some consider ideology to be what offers position to the subject and the master or the ruler and his people. Furthermore, some consider ideology to be false ideas and beliefs that help to legitimise and maintain a particular person or structure in political power. Ideology can also be considered as ways of thinking or forms of thought motivated by a particular social interest.

On the other hand, ideology can also be referred to as a socially necessary illusion. Magzan statescontinues that ideology to some people would be the medium through which social actors perceive their world or make sense of it. Ideology could also be a set of values and beliefs which are action oriented. To politicians, Magzan argues,says ideology could be the in-disposable or indispensable medium through which individuals live out their relations to the super or social structure. Ideology could also be the process of converting social life to natural reality.

While some of the definitions of ideology are neutral, explaining ideology as a simple body of ideas and values belonging to a particular people, others have a derogatory connotation explaining ideology as a false set of ideas with the aim ofa legitimising a particular regime and maintaining its in power. As such, the kind of ideology one chooses to transmitpass across to others is determined by the way the individual sees, understands and feels about that society. Eagleton , p. In this case ideology represents what people wantwhat to see in their society and not the present circumstances of the society.

This is therefore achieved through education and all levels of media. Hountondji , p. Ideology produces and indirect political effect by silencing the problem of effective national liberation and class struggle. Ideology, therefore, is never innocent, but always gears towards serving a particular unavowed interest Zizek, Vincent concurs with this view as he argues that ideology represents a body of values, concepts and symbols which embody conceptions of human nature and by extension indicate what might be possible or not possible for humans to achieve and this is often informed by critical reflections on the nature of human interaction and the values which we ought to accept or reject as rational beings for the appropriate technical arrangements offor social, economic and political life which might or might not meet the needs of human life.

This, therefore, means that ideology both prescribes and describes the way human beings should live and behave in the society. Vincent further statescontinuous that ideology aims toat enforceing or legitimisezing certain activities and arrangements for some individuals which would ultimately intergratde and enable the others to adhere to it. To this end ideology is action oriented and gears towards instigating a particular action or validating it for the society to follow. It opposes sound and sensible thinking and its vision for the society making it fanatical and largely impractical.

Marx and Engels corroborate this view in their arguments about ideology as they consider it to be an abstract thought about human society which was ultimately force. They continue that ideology is a thought consciously developed by the so-called thinkers, but which contains a false consciousness. The real reason behind its development often remains unknown, which imagineses false or hidden intentions. As such, great sensible and true thinkers would rely on experience while foolish or silly people rely on ideology William, Marx and Engels further arguecontinue that ideology embodies legal, religious, aesthetic and political consciousness of conflicts arising from disparities and changes in economic production or the current status quo of the society as a whole.

This makes ideologies a conflicting belief systems as they since it can be used to challenge and shape the direction of the society. This, therefore, makes the study of ideology quite pertinent since it is important to ascertain what it aims toat achieveing. This study follows this train of thought in itsthis light to study exploration the content and ideology of literature modules in order to know what is being studied and why it is being studied.

Meighan and Siraj-Blatchford opine that when ideologies conflict or clash there is bound to be domination, incorporation, legitimation or freedom. They continue that one ideology may dominate the other through culture, which Gramsci called cultural hegemony, where in a particular culture represents itself as natural and superior and attempts to contain others within it and consequently its people.

Such cultures become the basis of dominant ideology. On the other hand, one ideology mayke incorporate or take over the other one through radical educational ideas proposed on the basis of equality, which morest often than not leads to inequality. This, in a sense, preserves the traditional notion of an elite class, but distorts the passage of recruitment from aristocratic inheritance and patronage to merit. But tThe irony in this remains in the fact that those who migrate to the elite class based upon merit areas similar to those who are part of it due toentered or would have entered the system through the patronage system.

In additionAlso an ideology can achieve legitimation through the enforcement of its beliefs. This is often done using the police, army, secret service and many other tools to ensure that government hasve its way in the society. They use ideology as a weapon forof liberation through which they hope to change the happenings in the society. Magzan postulates that there are different kinds of ideologies propounded by different philosophers and politicians who aim to changeing the direction of the society one way or another. Selected Iideologies such aslike Marxism, socialism, liberalism, democracy, feminism and a few others relevant to this study which speak to the study and its context will be discussed since an attempted at discussing all ideologies in the world will be a herculean task.

Marxism propounded by Karl Marx sees ideology as a false consciousness. As such it is almost impossible for an individual member of a particular group or class to form a conception of the world because he or she only sees the world through a particular tiny lens. To Marx, therefore, the social class to which we belong shapes the way we think and see the world. The mMembers of different social classes are instructed or brought up to think and see the world through a particular lens that is seen as appropriate for that class.

This Marx refers to this as the social construction of reality,. A and this is by and largely shaped by the world social world we live in. If one were to changes classes in the society, one would perceive reality differently. This new reality is a false consciousness which produces psychologically satisfying symbols andwhich brings an assumed order to the world. Socialism, on the other hand, propounded predominantly by Thomas Munster, is an ideology which can be defined as the collective ownership and management of all means of production or social services Vincent, It has been, and is still is, being considered as a social ideal by many scholars who believe in equal societies and opportunities.

Vincent statescontinues that socialism is an ideology which believes that the very nature of the society as it is threatened and can only be remedied by the implementation of socialist ideals. Socialismt evolved as a result of societal challenges in relation to employment and service delivery. These issues might include inequality, poverty, corruption, unemployment exploitation, and dictatorship amongst others. Socialism sees change as a constant process thatwhich should not be elusive to mankind, but which should be embraced and utilised to take the society forward Vincent, Socialism as an ideology has gradually moved from being a tool into societal and economic transformation to education which it positssees ats the core of change.

Since everyone is equal, or at least supposed to be equal, in a socialist state, this equality is in turn represented in the education system. Schools are fully equipped and equally resourced. Under- resourced schools become a thing of the past and marginalisation becomes isolated to tales fromof history. The suitable education of the rising generation must carefully be undertaken through the mirror of socialism,. Wwhere every newly born person is a welcomed and celebrated addition to society, and the society is ready to educate him or her because it sees him or her as vitalthe panorama of to its continuance and its own further development Vincent, Socialists continue that most current education systems largely ignore the social phase or aspects of education.

This is so because for education to be of value in the present it must present a unity in the things taught and the society at large. Every teacher is supposed to be fully knowledgeable about subjects which relate to the society and the science of society — sociology in combination withto the knowledge of their subject specialty.

At this juncture this unity has been a topic of discussion amongst socialists and philosophers, but has received little or no attention from the pedagogue. Socialism ultimately aims toat substituteing coercion with collaboration, political relationships with personal relationships and passive surrogate representation withby active and total democracy Sargent, Liberalism as an ideology is an amalgamation of ideas and strategies on how best to gain, maintain and defend ones freedom or liberty.

It upholds the liberty, freedom and equality of all individuals. Liberalism ties the good of the individual to the common good of the society thus making the society more individualistic with very little government control. Sargent , p. Kelly , p. Secondly, that liberalism and its individualistic nature is ethical and not sociological or psychological in nature. Lastly,Furthermore ethical individualism and equality of concern and reverence does not necessitate moral scepticism about objective values, but rather it is pre-occupied with the moral restrictions of coercion or political power.

Rawls argues that experimentation, which is the core of liberalism, would strive to generate situations or a society where each individual has equal rights to the most extensive basic liberty attuned with a rudimentary liberty for others. In Tthis way equal opportunity is guaranteed for all. These rights should be guaranteed by fair value and liberty of choice.

This fairness should ensure that the less privileged or the previously disadvantaged can utilise it and improvelevel up with the rest of the society. As such democracy in its pure form means rule by the people or power to the people Sargent, , p. Walker , p. Walker statesBut that this view he says is nuanced because the involvement of the citizens iscomes in only used as an attempt to check political leaders while maintaining competition amongst rival elites. FurthermoreAlso the citizens or the people are seen as being unable to make informed decisions thus making voting a mechanism or tool to settle rivalry amongst competing elites.

Sargent argues that efficiency is not as vital as the positive influence of a participating citizenry since the average citizen in every nation is capable of understanding most, if not all, issues pertaining to the nation. He continues to argue that since democracy is all about power to the people, involving the people in the ruling of the nation will save not only the ideology, but also the nation itself.

As such, the masses should have direct participation in the processes of government, in making and changing laws and in the distribution of national resources. This is importantso because people will never be trulyactually free or equal in the society until they become active and involved citizens ready and committed to see the system they are part of succeed. ThereforeAs such it is for the people and by the people.

Beetham continues by stating that the most democratic arrangement would be onethat where all members of the collective enjoy effective equal rights in order to take part in such decision making directly and this in other words realiszes to the greatest conceivable degree the principles of popular control and equality. Samarasinghe concurs that democracy means the collective capacity of a public to make good things happen collectivelyin the public and also the capacity to do things individually.

For this to happen effectively, Sargent argues that the education of the masses is vital since an educated citizenry will be able to function better in whatever is expected of them. Therefore, a well-educated populace is of utmost importance into a fully functioning democracy. Feminism is another ideology which has been sounded and resounded in contemporary societies. It presupposes that improving the lot and status of women will invariable improve the wellbeing all human beings regardless of their gender.

As such whatever freedom the individual is grantedgets applies to the political and becomes a direct function and product of the political. This is done through the expansion of the notion of the personal as the political. It argues that since all human relationships are power relationships or power driven and that women have historicallyin the past been powerless in these relationships, with some exceptions.

All individuals, both men and women, should be given the opportunity to explore all possibilities in the society. She continues to argue that women have suffered diverse kinds of abuse atin the hands of men and other women, but the eradication of this would not only improve the lots of the women, but also everyone in the society assince they are involved in relationships with both men and women in the society. Things like this, from a feminist perspective, should be corrected and this correction will not only be beneficial to women but to every member of the society assince it will provide clarification and avoid confusion within the society.

Sargent concludes that the primary aim of feminism is freedom and equality for everyone and not only for women. This, therefore, makes the ultimately goal of feminism to break through diverse barriers including both mental and physical as well as the political, economic, and cultural barriers that have kept all human beings from becoming fully human.

Schiro propounded that there are four distinct curriculum ideologies dominating the contemporary world of education. These four ideologies are:; the scholar academic ideology;, the social efficiency ideology;, the student centeredcentred ideology; and the social reconstruction ideology. The scholar academic ideology, Schiro argues, is that culture and beliefs have accumulated vital knowledge from centuries past which has now been grouped into academic disciplines or subjects taught within the university setting. The learning and utilisation of this knowledge can only take place when the content is appropriately conceptualised and the frameworks within it, both theoretical and conceptual, are clearly defined and practical ways of thinking are highlighted.

For this to happen, lecturers should be mini-scholars who have deep and detailed understanding of the subjects and are also ableabout to effectively communicate it to the students. Null and Ravitch argue that subjects within the scholar academic ideology are seen as hierarchical organisation of students or people in search of truth within one body or part of knowledge in the intellectual world. The hierarchy consist of three different stages:; those who discover the truth renowned scholars in the field ;, teachers of the discovered truth university lecturers who pass this truth unto students ; and finally learners of the discovered truth students who sit in lectures to learn the truth so as to acquire some level of competence and proficiency in the subject.

Schiro concurs with this by adding that the scholar academic ideology sees education as a means of sustaining cultures or truth discovered by ensuring that more people grow within the discipline regularly. This process of sustaining cultures and truth begins with the transference of the discovered truth to the students by the lecturers.

These students are continuously fed with the truth until they grow and becomecircle into lecturers themselves while the lecturers while decimateing the truth as mini-scholars and also circle around to become renowned scholars in their field. Thise process continues as the students who are now lecturers begin to raise another set of students and the circle continuesous.

The primary concern of this ideology is to select content or construct a curriculum which would be a reflection of the essence of this discipline and the cultures of the society Schiro, The social efficiency ideology, on its part according to Schultz , advocates that education is supposed to aid in the smooth functioning of the society by training young peopleths to function properly as future mature and responsible citizenry. Through this process of education youngths or students develop skills, procedures and talents which will be further utilised in the work place in years to come.

Education in this sense is geareds towards enhancing social productivity and this is achieved through a careful selection of the content to be taught and the strategies through which it will be taught. This ideology aims at producing a particular kind of citizens in the society, but the learners need constant and incessant practice to master and maintain the required skills.

As such education begins by examining the needs of the society as a whole or a particular part of the society after which terminal objectives are developed and the duty of lecturers in this case is to conveygeneral knowledge and produce students thatwho meet these terminal objectives thereby solving the identified problem in the society by sending students out to function within the set society Schiro, Kliebard , concurring with this, states that the most important tool for the curriculum and its functioning in the society is the utilisation of scientific procedures in curriculum making or content selection, which will in-turn ensures that education generates change in human behaviour much likeis produce on a cause and effects bases or action and reaction basies.

This conception requires the predetermination of relationships between the cause and effects or action and reaction and to predict the former that will lead to the later St Pierre, Therefore, learning experiences that would generate a specific desired effect must be predetermined and fashioned in ways so that it will produce the desired effects. Lauber, Robinson, Kim and Davis point out that there are three key issues pertinent to social efficiency ideology:; the concept of learning which ultimately leads to change in human behaviour;, the creation and sequencing of learning experiences which would ensure the cause and effect chain or action and reaction chain; and accountability to the society.

Social efficiency ideology therefore worksgears towards producing the desired change in the society and creating students whom will emerge as responsible citizens and tackle the challenges of the society, for as Tyler , p. These educational objectives become the criteria by which materials are selected, content is outlined, instructional procedures are developed and tests and examinations are prepared. This ideology therefore is therefore change driven and this change is founded and operated on the platform of specific cause and effect strategies. The third ideology dominating the educational world today, as Schiro points out, is dominating the educational world today is the learner centred ideology.

This ideology focuses on the needs of individual members of the society. This would lead to the growth of the individual at all levels:; physically,; emotionally,; psychologically,; socially ;and intellectually. Advocates of the learner centred ideologyThey continue to extol that students have diverse capacities in-built within them waiting to find expression and it is through education, that they are cultured to express these capabilities in a way that will benefit the society as a whole.

Growth or personal growth, therefore, is or should be the central theme in every educational endeavour. Education is used herein this sense because as a tool for developingdelivery students of the knowledge and experiences that students already they carry and isof what is generally referred to as the Socratic midwifery Tomin, In this case the teacher becomes a midwife who works in collaboration with the student to deliver the student of the knowledge, experiences and ideas hidden in the student.

The potential for growth lies in the student, but he or she needs assistance in utilising this potential. The environment in this case epitomises the society, its people and every other resource available to the student which is useful in meaning making. And this interaction produces meaning thatwhich is also unique in relation to the individual. Edwards , p. The lecturer provides instruction in tools and materials needed and helps in finding materials needed which are unavailable.

The lecturer, therefore, is only a facilitator of learning through the generation of knowledge by the individual. This way the student is fully involved in the education decision making and in shaping the direction his or her learning should take. Since students are different from one another, each student therefore has the opportunity forof driving his or her own learning and determining the direction it should take.

This way the new information conforms to the existing informationone and forms a particular body of knowledge. FurthermoreAlso knowledge is incessantly constructed and reconstructed by students since their understanding of things and circumstances is continuously altered by their experiences. New meaning is then developed from such experiences. This new meaning or knowledge evolves as or is presented as personal truth or beliefs since its personal significance and foundation lies within the creator student and consequently expands the level of understanding the individual has. Learning within the framework of this ideology better fits better within the units of work rather than subjects.

Units of work differ from It is different from subjects in that they areit is wider in scope and interconnected. It is more individualistic and demands the movement from concrete physical experiences to abstract intellectual conceptualisations. Schiro , p. Students are not passive agents during this interaction; they are active agents of their learning.

This makes learning an individual activity which cannot be transferred from one person to the other but something created by each student. This therefore means that all students naturally think and make sense of things through experiences. What each student has experienced shapes what heis or she is able to learn and what he or she is able to understand. The environment where-in the student lives in becomes the foundation of these experiences and how he or she reacts to the circumstances around him or her is a function of the meaning generated from the experiences.

The fourth ideology Schiro discussespoints out that is dominating the educational world today is the social reconstruction ideology. He statescontinuous that the consciousness of the injustices and inequalities perpetuated bye some members of the society unto others owing to racial, tribal, regional orand gender differences has ledt to the development of this ideology. Boggs and Giroux argue that proponents of the social reconstruction ideology view the curriculum from a social perspective.

Judging from the inequalities and insecurities within the society they argue that the currently society and all its systems is unhealthy and as such its very existence is threatened,. B but like everything that is self- destructive, something can be done about it. Saving this society, according to Giroux , would entail constructing a vision of the society thatwhich completely breaks away from the current viewone and offers new opportunities and possibilities to its people, thereby resolving the challenges and conflicts of the society. The implementation of the constructed vision will therefore lead to the reconstruction of the society.

This vision can only be effectively implemented in the society through education since education is a tool for societal change. Social Reconstructionists believe in the powers of education and its ability to shape the minds of the people such that they are able to construct and implement the perfect vision of the society that they want to see. Joseph, Bravmann, Windschitl, Mikel and Green argue that because Social Reconstructionists view education from a social perspective, the nature of the society both as it should be and as it is becomes the primary factors or determinants of the ideas within this ideology.

This, therefore, means that knowledge and truth is inculcated and shaped or defined by cultural assumptions. The truth, or knowledge, or good education or good citizen of the society only exists within the conceptions of the nature of a good society. McLaren propounds that the primary goal of social reconstructionists therefore is, therefore, to provide solutions to such criseis by digging deep into their culture and rooting out aspects of it that provoke such criseis and replace them with social virtues that are desirable to the entireentirety of society.

The first way he points out is that this vision offers people the opportunity forof rising from their individual situations or challenges and seeing the social crisis as a whole. For example, when the proletariat or the have nots in the society unanimously see that they are oppressed by their leaders regardless of their race or gender, it offers them the opportunity forof creating a common vision of a better society or life and empowers them to act together to meet general or shared needs thereby collectively improving themselves and the society as a whole Apple, , pp.

The second way Schiro points out is that this vision gives members of the society an alternative to the crisis and the opportunity ofto escape iting the crisis battered society where-in they live through the construction of possibilities that transcend critique into the realm of human empowerment. Without the people having the full understanding that the crisis in their society can be overcome, and without a clearly outline of such possibilities,ty of such overcoming people would not have the strength to wage the war required to reconstruct their society Giroux, , p.

The third way this vision helps people to reconstruct their societies, according to Schiro , is that the vision contains virtues that empower people to see their problems or the crisis in the society as solvable rather than relinquishing all into the hands of fate by seeing such a crisis as integral parts of the aspects or characteristics of the society in which they live. For example, it would only take an individual who has high value for freedom to see the lack thereof as a problem.

A curriculum which would educate the people about the virtues and values of freedom would therefore lead to dissatisfaction when there is no freedom and consequently pavesleads the way forto action in the bid to regain the absentlost freedom. Hope that is often absent or missing in most societies and which will motivate peoplethem to act in ways which were impossible before. Freire , p. Hope, therefore, is vital as people begin to step out of their comfort zones in the drive to change andor improve the world or their societies society as it in challengesing and motivatesing them to overcome their social problems which have until this pointin time past have held them captive or trapped them in ignorance and hopelessness.

This is particularly important because short term goals or vaguely defined goals and priorities which will only lead to confusion and frustration, for as Oyedepo , p. The last benefit of the Social Reconstructionists' vision of the perfect society informs the nature of the good citizen, worthwhile knowledge, good education and truth.

The Temptation of Jesus

Without the understanding of these, citizens would not be able to work towards achieving it and this would mar the reconstruction of the society. It is, therefore, clear that ideology is a vital tool for impacting and changing a society. From the discussion of ideologies such aslike Marxism, socialism, liberalism, democracy, feminism, the scholar academic ideology, the social efficiency ideology, the student centeredcentred ideology and the social reconstruction ideology, it is clear that the kind of ideology an individual adopts determines the way he or she acts or reacts in his or her society.

Within the context of this study and with the understanding of the background of the location of the study deeply rooted inwith inequalities, marginalisation, tribalism, sectionalism andamongst others these ideologies offer a vaintage point both to understand and carvecalve a way forward for such societies.

A choice of any ofother the ideologies discussed, or any other ideologyone for that matter, will either be to ensure the freedom to create flow of change or to ensure the stabilisation of the status quo. Education in Cameroon, according to Watony , is supposed to bring freedom, create new platforms for meaning making meaning and to equip the student with knowledge of the way in whichfunctioning of the society functions, thereby empowering them to bring change where needed.

A look at these visions forof education within the framework of the context of this study therefore indicates that change is inevitable. What determines the direction of the change therefore areis the ideologies of the lecturer or content selector. What choices are being made by these lecturers for their students in athe bid to improve the status quo? This is the question begging for an answer since the choice of books and ideology within the framework of literature is their core responsibility of the lecturer and why any specific text or ideology is selected is the issues under investigation in this study.

In order to explore the above questionTo through more light on this the complex nature of literature shouldwould further be discussed further. There is no universally accepted definition of what literature is, but diverse authors and critical theorists have attempted several definitions of the term. ABut a simple definition such as thislook at this will not suffice asbecause it eliminates autobiographical texts. He also points out that there are novels like Superman comics and Mills and Boon books which are fictional, but which are not often regarded as literature.

Culler , p. Literature in this sense manipulates and intensifies ordinary language giving it a new meaning which deviates from the ordinary everyday useage of such words and language. Eagleton continues to state that literature, as some writers say, is a non-pragmatic discourse which is directed towards no immediate purpose, but seems to be speaking to a contemporary state of affairs.

As such literature is concerned with what is actuallythe happenings occuring in the society as well as what should be happening init such a society. Holman and Harmon , p. While some writers are continuously lampooning and reporting onabout their societyies, others speak about the kind of society they want to see. Franko sees literature as quality writing with the capacity to influence and the pretence forto permanence. Meyer , p. This opens the spectrum of literature up to a wide variety of writings. Eagleton defines literature as a generic term often used to describe written or spoken material or anything works of arts from the more scientific and technical ones to creative writing.

Eagleton further points out that the term literature is morest often than not is used to refer to works generating from the creative abilities of its authors within the genre of poetry, drama, fiction, and non-fiction. Creativity, therefore, stands out as a hall mark of literature, according to Eagleton, and another determining factor is whether or not it falls within one of the genres of literature. Wellek and Warren , p. This definition of literature highlights two important key elements which must be considered in deciding whether or not to call something literature.

The first important key elementone is form and language. Wellek and Warren point out that how a text is structured for instance world place it within a specific genre of literature and by extension making it literature. As such a specific form must be maintained when writing literature depending on what the author wants to write. The second key element Wellek and Warren identify as part of what makes something literature, is the utilisation of ideas and concepts which are of permanent and universal interest. For instance, issues such aslike marginalisation, corruption, bribery, terrorism, crime and punishment, justice, inequality, and politics amongst many others should be the primary focus of literature.

In agreement with thisConcurringly, Dillard speaking about literature pointsed out that literature should be able to lay bare the beauty of what it is talking about, empower the individual and question the deepest or most frightful mysteries and ideas, whilst re-imagininge the society and thuswhere-in he or she is writing thereby illuminating the minds of the readerspeople and inspiring them with courage, wisdom and the possibility of meaningfulness in order to act accordingly and in turn impact society.

John Galt. Less than a year later, Ted Turner went onfurther to start one of the biggest television news networkstelevision in the world:; CNN Burns, It is, therefore, clear that for something to be considered literature according to Dillard , Marcus and Sollors , Landy , Kennedy and Perrine it must hold some value for the intended readerspeople to whom it was intended and it must be able to inspire those readers people to improvedo better in their respective societyies.

Literature, therefore, has the capacity to change the Cameroonian society. It has the potential to inspire the people to stand up toagainst marginalisation, sectionalism, tribalism, election racketeering, political buffoonery, bribery, exploitation and certain levels of dictatorship. But tThe impact literature wouldill have on both on the students and their society would depend on the kind of content selected for them to study by their lecturers and why such content was selected. Owing to the nature of the Cameroonian society, which is plagued with censorship and political control, whilst also and bearing in mind what literature is and what it can do, the obvious question is: what is being studied in literature modules and why is it being studied?

This question needs to be explored because literature if it has not been able to do what itliterature can or should be doing according to Diana and Dillard

Other Temptations of Jesus: Lenton Studies for Adventurous Christians Other Temptations of Jesus: Lenton Studies for Adventurous Christians
Other Temptations of Jesus: Lenton Studies for Adventurous Christians Other Temptations of Jesus: Lenton Studies for Adventurous Christians
Other Temptations of Jesus: Lenton Studies for Adventurous Christians Other Temptations of Jesus: Lenton Studies for Adventurous Christians
Other Temptations of Jesus: Lenton Studies for Adventurous Christians Other Temptations of Jesus: Lenton Studies for Adventurous Christians
Other Temptations of Jesus: Lenton Studies for Adventurous Christians Other Temptations of Jesus: Lenton Studies for Adventurous Christians
Other Temptations of Jesus: Lenton Studies for Adventurous Christians Other Temptations of Jesus: Lenton Studies for Adventurous Christians
Other Temptations of Jesus: Lenton Studies for Adventurous Christians Other Temptations of Jesus: Lenton Studies for Adventurous Christians

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