Forgotten Columbus (Images of America)


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Husher was sent to Switzerland to learn the Photochrom process. Upon his return in the spring of , he learned that Demme had embezzled most of the money earmarked for the new Photochrom plant in Detroit. It took a year for the struggling firm to regroup, but by it had canned Demme, found new financial backers, and contracted for the services and purchased the archives of acclaimed American photographer William Henry Jackson.

More than anyone, Jackson made the Detroit Photographic Co. Now people without the means to visit Yellowstone could finally picture it for themselves. Until then, the only images they might have seen would have been in black-and-white. Fortunately, Jackson was not only an accomplished photographer, but a skilled painter, too.


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Every Photochrom had a story behind it, and sometimes it seemed like the people were going to jump right out of the photos. For me, they became living images from a place where time has not passed, even though, of course, in reality it had. Lowe Railway as it races around a vertiginous track—the electrified train was one of the biggest tourist attractions in Southern California prior to World War II. In a good year, DPC printed some 7 million images. The first decade of the 20th century was also when DPC joined forces with one of the biggest mythologizers of the American West, the Fred Harvey Company, which had built a string of restaurants and hotels along the route of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, as well as other lines.

Harvey ordered hundreds of thousands of DPC Phostints, which were sold in hotel gift shops to guests, alongside the jewelry, blankets, and baskets the company commissioned from the photogenic native populations. After the war, in , American was gripped by recession, which forced DPC into receivership in , when its inventory of 40, negatives were sold.

Some ended up at the State Historical Society of Colorado but most now reside in the Library of Congress, including 25, negatives, Photochroms, and glass plates by William Henry Jackson. Awesome historical content. And why would they hide just those coins, and not — for example Spanish gold coins or English pounds? This is a very tantalizing clue which may prove that Roman traders had established links to North America.

Even more interesting is a stone carving of a human head found in a grave site near Mexico City, named the Tecaxic-Calixtlahuaca head.

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The head depicts a European man, with a thick beard which Aztecs could not grow and a pointed hat similar to Roman fashion. The grave site dates back to between and AD. Columbus did not sail to the West Indies until Experts have dated the figure as being much older, and having been manufactured around B.

Did a Roman expedition reach Mexico?

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We know for certain that at least one ship did reach the New World. A wreck of a Roman ship, full of cargo, has been discovered in Guanabara Bay, off the coast of Southern Brazil. It has been conclusively dated to around B. The prevailing wisdom is that this is a Roman wreck which was blown far off course and not evidence of Roman knowledge of the New World. But while its journey may have been accidental, did any of the occupants survive the trip, perhaps ending up marooned on a foreign shore?

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When Hernando Cortez led his Spanish conquistadors into the heart of the Aztec empire and seized its land and riches, he was aided by the peculiar belief of the Aztecs that ages before they had been visited by a white man who was a God or at least a messenger of the Gods, and that this man had taught them many skills and then departed in great ships across the sea.

The legends foretold that one day he would return from the West in great ships, and reclaim his kingdom. In fact, the Aztec Emperor regarded himself as merely holding office in place of this God, until he returned. As a result, when Cortez and his men arrived in great ships from across the Western sea, the Aztec Emperor was not sure whether to welcome him as a God or to resist. Little is known about this legendary white visitor from across the sea.

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But the fact that the legends say that he came from the west, clearly point to some European explorer. The story rests on some dubious connections to the Knights Templar, and legends that when the Order was banned, the survivors took their treasure across the sea and hid it, perhaps at Oak Island. His fame rests primarily on oral legend, and partly on some carvings in the Sinclair family chapel which may or may not depict plants and animals found in North America.

There may also be a connection to the legendary and perhaps fictional Prince Zichmi, who is also said to have discovered North America, or may not have existed at all. If Sinclair did travel across the Atlantic, he left no written records of his expedition — which perhaps is to be expected if one was leading a secret expedition to hide treasure. Skeptics however believe that the whole story is fictiona l. As one historian, William Thomson, has stated: "It has been Earl Henry's singular fate to enjoy an ever-expanding posthumous reputation which has very little to do with anything he achieved in his lifetime.

Saint Brendan was an Irish Christian monk who lived around A.

7 Reasons Why Columbus NEVER Discovered America

He is said to have encountered many adventures, and to have made land fall on various islands located in the Atlantic ocean. Many of the elements of the story are clearly fable, but was nevertheless influential.


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  4. Whether or not Saint Brendan ever discovered new lands across the sea, the idea that these lands existed was an important factor in motivating others to search for them. It is also interesting that the voyage itself is possible. According to tradition, Saint Brendan is said to have sailed in a small currach, which is little more than a wooden basket covered in leather. The idea that such a flimsy craft, which was typically used on rivers and close to the sea shore, could have made it across the stormy Atlantic seems implausible. But researchers have proven that it can be done.

    In , the adventurer, writer, and historian Tim Severin decided to test whether it was possible for someone to sail across the ocean in a coracle. He built a replica with traditional materials and set off from Ireland, reaching North America. So we know it could have been done. But did it happen? The Pacific Ocean is immense and difficult to cross. However, there is evidence to suggest that the great Chinese naval explorer Zheng He may have reached the eastern coast of North America, near California, over 60 years before Columbus reached the western part of the continent.

    Between to he led fleets to explore the South China Sea, India, and even the east coast of Africa. He fleets were composed of massive ships which dwarfed in size anything that Europe could produce at the time. But the expeditions proved costly, and China was beset by internal troubles, so these seaborne voyages were abandoned and the Chinese Empire turned in on itself and attempted to shut itself off from the world.

    A Forgotten Explorateur - WSJ

    The author Rowan Gavin Paton Menzies has made extraordinary claims that in addition to the known voyages, the Chinese circumnavigated the globe long before Magellan, reached Antarctica, Europe, and North America by sea. There are no records of this except possibly a map which purports to show the North American continent, but which is probably a later forgery.

    But there are some tantalizing clues to suggest Chinese contact with North America long before Columbus. As well, several wrecks of what appear to be Chinese ships have been found off the coast of North America. Though like the Roman ship that sank off of Brazil, these may have been boats that were blown off course by storms.

    There are many myths and legends concerning the discovery of North America before Columbus, and many explorers have laid claim to the honor of being the first. As the true legends of the Vikings have shown us, what may appear to be only myth often turns out to be based at least partly on fact. Chances are that the New World was not as new as Columbus thought, and that many other explorers had already touched those shores.

    King James was a native of Scotland and European Caucasian. Two reasons: 1 There are so many traces and stories of pre-Columbian contact that I couldn't cover everything in one article. They have not been conclusively established to be pre-Columbian. Do you think that the so-called white man who the Aztecs believed would come was a really smart Roman scam artist who lost his map to America while escaping from the Visigothic invasion of Iberia?

    I think that there were multiple contacts between what is now Mexico and Europe long before Columbus. I don't know if the legends about a bearded white man visiting the Aztecs coincides with the Visigothic invasions. However, it is interesting that some of his teachings resemble some Christian doctrines, suggesting that he may have been a missionary monk.

    It is also interesting that paintings and drawings throughout North and South America depict animals that do not exist on those continents including the lamb, in the context of the teachings of this person and even elephants. So I think that there was more than one visitor. What about Sumerians? It depends who you believe. However, if he did have such a tablet, it would suggest that contact between the Old and New Worlds went back even farther than my article suggests. There is no evidence of any Arab expedition to the New World. However, it is always possible that a ship or two might have been blown off course and reached it by accident.

    What about Plutarch's De Facie, where a traveler from a great continent west of Britain mentions Greek colonies there? This is a very intriguing reference and deserves more discussion. The actual story is that a rebel Roman general in Spain considered escaping to the lands of the west across the oceans, but he was assassinated by the Romans before anything could come of this.

    There is also the suggestion, in other writings, that the Phoenicians, who had earlier colonized Spain, may have been aware of the lands across the Atlantic. A lot of the ancient knowledge was lost during the barbarian invasions, and so we cannot be sure to what extent the Romans knew about North America. They were certainly aware that there were lands across the western ocean since they knew about Ireland, and probably about the Azores. Cities and towns across America have for more than a century claimed to be the holiday's birthplace, but we have sifted through the myths and half-truths and uncovered the authentic story of how this holiday came into being.

    The forgotten history of Memorial Day

    During , the first year of this annual observance in the South, a feature of the holiday emerged that made awareness, admiration and eventually imitation of it spread quickly to the North. During the inaugural Memorial Day observances which were conceived in Columbus, Georgia , many Southern participants — especially women — decorated graves of Confederate soldiers as well as, unexpectedly, those of their former enemies who fought for the Union. Shortly after those first Memorial Day observances all across the South, newspaper coverage in the North was highly favorable to the ex-Confederates.

    The New York Commercial Advertiser , recognizing the magnanimous deeds of the women of Columbus, Georgia, echoed the sentiment. This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article. To be sure, this sentiment was not unanimous. There were many in both parts of the U. But as a result of one of these news reports, Francis Miles Finch , a Northern judge, academic and poet, wrote a poem titled " The Blue and the Gray. He explained what inspired him to write it:. Finch's poem seemed to extend a full pardon to the South: "They banish our anger forever when they laurel the graves of our dead" was one of the lines.

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