The approach could one day be used to create a large range of Swimming Toward an 'Internet of Health'? Software powered by machine learning of sounds, However, spintronic components, which rely on electron spin rather than charge, are always flat. To investigate how A nearly zero-energy alternative sounds too good to be true, but as a professor Quantum Internet Closer to Reality Sep. Such an internet could offer the military security, sensing and timekeeping capabilities not possible with traditional networking As a result, the potential economic benefits for workers and the population as a whole are not being realized.
Similar policy failures have appeared in other industrialized nations.
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However, the problem of skewed economic growth and the resulting increase in income inequality have been particularly severe in the United States. Economic analysis demonstrates that the only path to long-term growth in incomes is to steadily increase productivity growth. This is because greater efficiency enables higher salaries and wages. In contrast, without adequate productivity growth, the resulting inefficient economy will suffer inflation, trade deficits i.
Responding to this mandate requires enlightened investment policies focused on the development and use of technology. The reason is straightforward—technology is the long-term driver of productivity growth. Unfortunately, neither economists nor the broader economic growth policy arena has focused sufficiently on this investment mandate.
Achieving sustained growth in productivity requires an investment-driven economic growth strategy, centered on investment in four major categories of economic assets:. The first of these occurred from the late s through the middle s and was characterized by a transition from hand to mechanized manufacturing using water and steam power. The second revolution began in the late s and extended into the first part of the twentieth century.
It was dominated by mass production, powered by electricity. The specification and control of the multiple steps in production led to reduced costs economies of scale. The third revolution began in the late s has been characterized by automation, based on the widespread use of computers, which has led to more diversified and higher quality products and services economies of scope. The critical point for economic growth policy is the fact that in all three revolutions, the driver of the resulting massive change in the character of economic activity was technology. But, what complicates such transitions is the fact that technology by itself is not enough to generate and sustain high rates of output and income growth.
In each revolution, new technology was implemented through almost a total replacement of the existing stock of physical capital and, more recently, software, as well. Further, during most of this period, the US educational system produced superior skilled workers and government invested in world-class infrastructure. The result of these four categories of investment was that the US economy had the fastest sustained growth in per capita income over most of this period.
In contrast to a productivity-driven economic growth strategy, the more recent US policy response to slow growth has been to rely on the Federal Reserve Board the Fed to provide more and cheaper credit through monetary policy initiatives. Hence, the best it can do is pump up employment for a while before inflation sets in, which then forces the Fed to raise interest rates and throttle back economic activity. This cycle of ups and downs does little to increase incomes over time.
In contrast to business cycle fluctuations, which are largely the only appropriate target of monetary policy, underinvestment in productivity-enhancing assets is typically the cause of slow economic growth over time and therefore an alternative policy response is required.
However, even though significant evidence exists that structural problems are the cause of prolonged poor rates of economic growth, there continues to be a lack of adequate investment in the four categories of economic assets cited previously. One indicator is the growing difficulty of the American economy to snap back from recessions, as shown in Figure 1. Very important is the fact that eight years after the last recession ended, we are only now beginning to see some modest increases in incomes, while income inequality has greatly expanded. These trends are occurring in spite of historic increases in credit by the Fed.https://sollbansacarga.cf/air-water-and-the-environment-gr.php
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Particularly damning is the fact that real inflation-adjusted incomes for many workers have declined for decades. Real incomes determine ability to consume goods and services and the potential for increases in the standard of living. A Brookings Institution analysis of Census data shows that the median earnings for all workers was significantly lower in than in in a little more than half the major metro areas 52 of Going back even further, across several business cycles, Census data show that the real median household income in was 2. The decline in the standard of living for less-educated American workers has become a major source of political dissent.
This dissent is accentuated by growing income inequality. The extent of income inequality is staggering. More advanced economies—that is, those with a higher per capita gross domestic product GDP —tend to have less income inequality for the simple reason that their above average performance requires more skilled workers whose skills are not easily replicated elsewhere in the world and who are, therefore, paid more. However, the US economy is an outlier in that it has a much higher Gini coefficient the generally accepted metric for income inequality relative to its per capita GDP when compared with the pattern for the rest of the world the United States has the same Gini coefficient as Russia and China but a much higher per capita GDP.
Income inequality implies the presence of relatively strong additional factors affecting income distribution within the US economy. Thus, we see proposals for tax increases on the rich and tax breaks for everyone else, increases in the minimum wage, and more targeted initiatives such as free college tuition. Although any or all such proposals may have social merit, they are largely just additional mechanisms for demand stimulation and thus offer little in terms of enhancing long-term productivity growth. Faced with such competition, the weakest and most destructive response from an economic welfare perspective is to erect trade barriers to protect inefficient domestic industries and their inadequately trained workers.
Such a step locks in inefficiency and, hence, guarantees no growth in the standard of living in two ways. Second, protectionism usually results in retaliation by other economies. This trend is demonstrated in Figure 2. In summary, it is traumatic for societies to accept the need to develop and implement new economic growth paradigms. Doing so presents societal risk of failure to successfully execute the new paradigm and individual risk of being left behind as others adapt more successfully. Part of this risk is the considerable time and resources needed to learn new skills, acquire new technology, and make associated investments in capabilities to use it, and, in many cases, different ways of doing business.
Thus, defenders of the status quo look for excuses to avoid change by asserting that the economic problems are due to too much taxation and regulation, unfair trade practices by the rest of the world, and forcing higher costs on business from social objectives such as a higher minimum wage. Although these are real issues and need to be debated, they are often used as excuses for not dealing with the need for major change in economic structure and associated investment strategies. In the end, failure to adapt leads to long-term decline in incomes. The resulting frustration eventually is manifested in populist movements that demand change with little idea as to the underlying nature of the problem.
This leads to support for any politician offering change, whether or not the proposed change offers an effective long-term solution. Thus, the only way forward is to determine the correct economic growth model and then build a consensus around it. Clearly, the excessive reliance on macrostimulation—monetary and fiscal measures—is not succeeding. And, fiscal policy, when used as a demand stimulation tool basically running budget deficits , has not worked. Both provide short-term increases in demand, but that is followed by inflation as inadequate productivity growth forces higher prices for goods and services.
However, as discussed below, fiscal policy also has an investment component, which is an essential policy tool for expanding the technology-based economy. Like the Colossus, a "program" on the ENIAC was defined by the states of its patch cables and switches, a far cry from the stored program electronic machines that came later. Once a program was written, it had to be mechanically set into the machine with manual resetting of plugs and switches. It combined the high speed of electronics with the ability to be programmed for many complex problems.
It could add or subtract times a second, a thousand times faster than any other machine. It also had modules to multiply, divide, and square root. High-speed memory was limited to 20 words equivalent to about 80 bytes. Built under the direction of John Mauchly and J. The machine was huge, weighing 30 tons, using kilowatts of electric power and contained over 18, vacuum tubes, 1, relays, and hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors, and inductors. The machine was in almost constant use for the next ten years.
Early computing machines were programmable in the sense that they could follow the sequence of steps they had been set up to execute, but the "program", or steps that the machine was to execute, were set up usually by changing how the wires were plugged into a patch panel or plugboard. The theoretical basis for the stored-program computer had been proposed by Alan Turing in his paper.
In Turing joined the National Physical Laboratory and began his work on developing an electronic stored-program digital computer. Although substantially similar to Turing's design and containing comparatively little engineering detail, the computer architecture it outlined became known as the " von Neumann architecture ". However, the better-known EDVAC design of John von Neumann , who knew of Turing's theoretical work, received more publicity, despite its incomplete nature and questionable lack of attribution of the sources of some of the ideas.
Turing thought that the speed and the size of computer memory were crucial elements, so he proposed a high-speed memory of what would today be called 25 KB , accessed at a speed of 1 MHz. The Manchester Baby was the world's first electronic stored-program computer. The machine was not intended to be a practical computer but was instead designed as a testbed for the Williams tube , the first random-access digital storage device.
Although the computer was considered "small and primitive" by the standards of its time, it was the first working machine to contain all of the elements essential to a modern electronic computer. The Mark 1 in turn quickly became the prototype for the Ferranti Mark 1 , the world's first commercially available general-purpose computer.
As it was designed to be the simplest possible stored-program computer, the only arithmetic operations implemented in hardware were subtraction and negation ; other arithmetic operations were implemented in software. The Experimental machine led on to the development of the Manchester Mark 1 at the University of Manchester.
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The machine's successful operation was widely reported in the British press, which used the phrase "electronic brain" in describing it to their readers. The computer is especially historically significant because of its pioneering inclusion of index registers , an innovation which made it easier for a program to read sequentially through an array of words in memory. Thirty-four patents resulted from the machine's development, and many of the ideas behind its design were incorporated in subsequent commercial products such as the IBM and as well as the Ferranti Mark 1.
The chief designers, Frederic C. The other contender for being the first recognizably modern digital stored-program computer  was the EDSAC ,  designed and constructed by Maurice Wilkes and his team at the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory in England at the University of Cambridge in But this is speculation and there is no sign of it so far. The design implemented a number of important architectural and logical improvements conceived during the ENIAC's construction, and a high-speed serial-access memory. It was finally delivered to the U. Army 's Ballistics Research Laboratory at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in August , but due to a number of problems, the computer only began operation in , and then only on a limited basis.
The first commercial computer was the Ferranti Mark 1 , built by Ferranti and delivered to the University of Manchester in February It was based on the Manchester Mark 1. The main improvements over the Manchester Mark 1 were in the size of the primary storage using random access Williams tubes , secondary storage using a magnetic drum , a faster multiplier, and additional instructions. The basic cycle time was 1. The multiplier used almost a quarter of the machine's 4, vacuum tubes valves.
At least seven of these later machines were delivered between and , one of them to Shell labs in Amsterdam. In October , the directors of J. The LEO I computer became operational in April  and ran the world's first regular routine office computer job. On 17 November , the J. This was the first business application to go live on a stored program computer.
Census Bureau. Its primary storage was serial-access mercury delay lines capable of storing 1, words of 11 decimal digits plus sign bit words. IBM introduced a smaller, more affordable computer in that proved very popular.
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Memory limitations such as this were to dominate programming for decades afterward. The program instructions were fetched from the spinning drum as the code ran. Efficient execution using drum memory was provided by a combination of hardware architecture: the instruction format included the address of the next instruction; and software: the Symbolic Optimal Assembly Program, SOAP,  assigned instructions to the optimal addresses to the extent possible by static analysis of the source program. Thus many instructions were, when needed, located in the next row of the drum to be read and additional wait time for drum rotation was not required.
In , British scientist Maurice Wilkes developed the concept of microprogramming from the realisation that the central processing unit of a computer could be controlled by a miniature, highly specialised computer program in high-speed ROM. Microprogramming allows the base instruction set to be defined or extended by built-in programs now called firmware or microcode. It was widely used in the CPUs and floating-point units of mainframe and other computers; it was implemented for the first time in EDSAC 2 ,  which also used multiple identical "bit slices" to simplify design.
Interchangeable, replaceable tube assemblies were used for each bit of the processor. ERA, then a part of Univac included a drum memory in its , announced in February The first mass-produced computer, the IBM , also announced in had about 8. Magnetic core memory patented in  with its first usage demonstrated for the Whirlwind computer in August Magnetic core was used in peripherals of the IBM delivered in July , and later in the itself.
It went on to dominate the field into the s, when it was replaced with semiconductor memory. Magnetic core peaked in volume about and declined in usage and market share thereafter. The bipolar transistor was invented in From onward transistors replaced vacuum tubes in computer designs,  giving rise to the "second generation" of computers. Compared to vacuum tubes, transistors have many advantages: they are smaller, and require less power than vacuum tubes, so give off less heat. Silicon junction transistors were much more reliable than vacuum tubes and had longer service life.
Transistorized computers could contain tens of thousands of binary logic circuits in a relatively compact space. Transistors greatly reduced computers' size, initial cost, and operating cost.
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Typically, second-generation computers were composed of large numbers of printed circuit boards such as the IBM Standard Modular System ,  each carrying one to four logic gates or flip-flops. At the University of Manchester , a team under the leadership of Tom Kilburn designed and built a machine using the newly developed transistors instead of valves.
Initially the only devices available were germanium point-contact transistors , less reliable than the valves they replaced but which consumed far less power. The design featured a kilobyte magnetic drum memory store with multiple moving heads that had been designed at the National Physical Laboratory, UK. By this team had transistor circuits operating to read and write on a smaller magnetic drum from the Royal Radar Establishment. CADET used point-contact transistors provided by the UK company Standard Telephones and Cables ; 76 junction transistors were used for the first stage amplifiers for data read from the drum, since point-contact transistors were too noisy.
From August CADET was offering a regular computing service, during which it often executed continuous computing runs of 80 hours or more. The Manchester University Transistor Computer's design was adopted by the local engineering firm of Metropolitan-Vickers in their Metrovick , the first commercial transistor computer anywhere. They were successfully deployed within various departments of the company and were in use for about five years.
IBM installed more than ten thousand s between and The second generation disk data storage units were able to store tens of millions of letters and digits. Next to the fixed disk storage units, connected to the CPU via high-speed data transmission, were removable disk data storage units. A removable disk pack can be easily exchanged with another pack in a few seconds. Even if the removable disks' capacity is smaller than fixed disks, their interchangeability guarantees a nearly unlimited quantity of data close at hand.
Magnetic tape provided archival capability for this data, at a lower cost than disk.
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Many second-generation CPUs delegated peripheral device communications to a secondary processor. For example, while the communication processor controlled card reading and punching , the main CPU executed calculations and binary branch instructions. One databus would bear data between the main CPU and core memory at the CPU's fetch-execute cycle rate, and other databusses would typically serve the peripheral devices.
On the PDP-1 , the core memory's cycle time was 5 microseconds; consequently most arithmetic instructions took 10 microseconds , operations per second because most operations took at least two memory cycles; one for the instruction, one for the operand data fetch. During the second generation remote terminal units often in the form of Teleprinters like a Friden Flexowriter saw greatly increased use. Eventually these stand-alone computer networks would be generalized into an interconnected network of networks —the Internet.
The early s saw the advent of supercomputing. The Atlas was a joint development between the University of Manchester , Ferranti , and Plessey , and was first installed at Manchester University and officially commissioned in as one of the world's first supercomputers — considered to be the most powerful computer in the world at that time. Atlas also pioneered the Atlas Supervisor , "considered by many to be the first recognisable modern operating system ".
In the US, a series of computers at Control Data Corporation CDC were designed by Seymour Cray to use innovative designs and parallelism to achieve superior computational peak performance. The "third-generation" of digital electronic computers used integrated circuits as the basis of their logic. The idea of the integrated circuit was conceived by a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the Ministry of Defence , Geoffrey W.
Produced at Fairchild Semiconductor, it was made of silicon , whereas Kilby's chip was made of germanium. Fairchild's planar process then allowed integrated circuits to be laid out using the same principles as those of printed circuits. Third generation integrated circuit computers first appeared in the early s in computers developed for government purposes, and then in commercial computers beginning in the middle s.
The "fourth-generation" of digital electronic computers used microprocessors as the basis of their logic. While the subject of exactly which device was the first microprocessor is contentious, partly due to lack of agreement on the exact definition of the term "microprocessor", it is largely undisputed that the first single-chip microprocessor was the Intel ,  designed and realized by Ted Hoff , Federico Faggin , and Stanley Mazor at Intel. While the earliest microprocessor ICs literally contained only the processor, i.
During the s there was considerable overlap between second and third generation technologies. The Burroughs large systems such as the B were stack machines , which allowed for simpler programming. These pushdown automatons were also implemented in minicomputers and microprocessors later, which influenced programming language design. Minicomputers served as low-cost computer centers for industry, business and universities.
The microprocessor led to the development of the microcomputer , small, low-cost computers that could be owned by individuals and small businesses. Microcomputers, the first of which appeared in the s, became ubiquitous in the s and beyond. While which specific system is considered the first microcomputer is a matter of debate, as there were several unique hobbyist systems developed based on the Intel and its successor, the Intel , the first commercially available microcomputer kit was the Intel -based Altair , which was announced in the January cover article of Popular Electronics.
However, this was an extremely limited system in its initial stages, having only bytes of DRAM in its initial package and no input-output except its toggle switches and LED register display. Despite this, it was initially surprisingly popular, with several hundred sales in the first year, and demand rapidly outstripped supply. Several early third-party vendors such as Cromemco and Processor Technology soon began supplying additional S bus hardware for the Altair In April at the Hannover Fair , Olivetti presented the P , the world's first complete, pre-assembled personal computer system.
As a complete system, this was a significant step from the Altair, though it never achieved the same success. It was in competition with a similar product by IBM that had an external floppy disk drive. Computing has evolved with microcomputer architectures, with features added from their larger brethren, now dominant in most market segments.
Systems as complicated as computers require very high reliability. ENIAC remained on, in continuous operation from to , for eight years before being shut down. Although a vacuum tube might fail, it would be replaced without bringing down the system. The vacuum-tube SAGE air-defense computers became remarkably reliable — installed in pairs, one off-line, tubes likely to fail did so when the computer was intentionally run at reduced power to find them.
Hot-pluggable hard disks, like the hot-pluggable vacuum tubes of yesteryear, continue the tradition of repair during continuous operation. Semiconductor memories routinely have no errors when they operate, although operating systems like Unix have employed memory tests on start-up to detect failing hardware. Today, the requirement of reliable performance is made even more stringent when server farms are the delivery platform.
In the 21st century, multi-core CPUs became commercially available. Currently, CAMs or associative arrays in software are programming-language-specific. Semiconductor memory cell arrays are very regular structures, and manufacturers prove their processes on them; this allows price reductions on memory products. During the s, CMOS logic gates developed into devices that could be made as fast as other circuit types; computer power consumption could therefore be decreased dramatically.
Unlike the continuous current draw of a gate based on other logic types, a CMOS gate only draws significant current during the 'transition' between logic states, except for leakage. This has allowed computing to become a commodity which is now ubiquitous, embedded in many forms , from greeting cards and telephones to satellites. The thermal design power which is dissipated during operation has become as essential as computing speed of operation. In servers consumed 1.
The SoC system on a chip has compressed even more of the integrated circuitry into a single chip; SoCs are enabling phones and PCs to converge into single hand-held wireless mobile devices. Computing hardware and its software have even become a metaphor for the operation of the universe.
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An indication of the rapidity of development of this field can be inferred from the history of the seminal article by Burks, Goldstine and von Neumann. To this day, the rapid pace of development has continued, worldwide. A article in Time predicted that: "By , the machines will be producing so much that everyone in the U.
How to use leisure time will be a major problem. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Timeline of computing hardware before Main article: Calculator. Main article: Analytical Engine. Main article: Analog computer. Main article: Stored-program computer. Further information: List of vacuum tube computers. Main article: Manchester Baby.
Related Significant and specific advancement in hardware technology.
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