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Paperback : The result was much-improved comparability and a quality control process that was supported by peer review and the personal commitment of participants in the working groups. In addition, the participants gained expertise that enhanced their countries' resources for interpreting the statistics in a national context. The OECD had extensive involvement in coordinating the process, collecting the data, and preparing and publishing a series of volumes of indicators under the title Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators. The first Education at a Glance was about pages long, with parallel text in French and English, and several of the indicators were designated as provisional because of general questions about their validity or applicability.
With succeeding years, new indicators have been added, as well as extensive background information relevant for interpreting the indicators. The and editions have annotated charts prepared by each country describing the organization of their education systems, including types and levels of schools and ages of students in each. The edition is almost pages long, includes data from many non-OECD countries, and is available in English, French, and German.
The establishment of the Program for International Student Assessment PISA highlights the importance of country collaboration in the development of international education statistics. To those working in the INES project, it quickly became clear that there was a lack of coherent data for indicators of student achievement. There was no extant database and no structure designed for governments to collaborate on an ongoing basis for regular data collections. Factors that needed to be overcome included major comparability issues ranging from conceptualization of outcomes to general survey practices; some countries' reluctance to publish indicators of achievement in a limited number of school subjects; and the large cost associated with producing the indicators.
After several years of ongoing discussions, a consensus was reached to set up a project in which for the first time, countries shared the central cost of developing and implementing the assessment countries typically are responsible for the cost of local data collection. The effort is governed by a board composed of representatives of participating countries and managed by the OECD secretariat.
It includes assessments at three-year intervals of reading, mathematics, and science literacy, and of selected cross-curricular competencies such as attitudes and approaches related to learning. Among the many other accomplishments associated with the country collaboration through the INES project, two that stand out are improvements in the comparability of expenditure data and of the categories for different levels of education e.nausunmildsticti.ga/syge-quiero-conocer-chicas.php
World Yearbook of Education : Patricia L. Jonietz :
In the case of the levels of education, UNESCO's International Standard Classification of Education ISCED , developed during the s, was revised to reflect various changes—for example, growth in continuing education and training outside of education institutions and programs that straddle the boundaries between upper secondary and postsecondary education, and a manual was developed to facilitate consistent interpretation of the new system.
Studies conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement IEA also involve collaboration among governments and researchers. The Civic Education Study, working in an area in which different countries have different notions about many of the concepts involved such as democracy and participation of individuals in democracy , relied heavily on international teams throughout the entire project for identifying common core ideas, developing assessment items, and interpreting results.
Because of the range and depth of international education statistics, it is impossible to provide more than a very brief summary in this limited space. NCES publications include explanatory notes and background information useful for interpreting the material from a U. Readers are encouraged to consult the publications directly to find additional statistics relevant to their particular interests.
Context of education. It is widely recognized that there is a large association between poverty and school achievement. Among a large number of countries participating in one study, the United States had by far the largest percentage of youth who were poor. Participation in education. Into the s, there was a general impression that the young people remained enrolled in school longer in the United States than in other countries.
However, statistics show that the percentage of those fifteen to nineteen years old and those twenty to twenty-nine years old enrolled in education in the United States is quite close to the average percentage among OECD countries. The United States spends a similar percentage of its gross domestic product GDP on education as other countries. On a per pupil basis, its expenditures are among the highest for elementary and secondary education.
In higher education, the U. Teachers and teaching. Teachers in the United States have the highest number of teaching hours, although teachers in a few other countries put in almost as many hours. The student—teacher ratio in the United States is similar to the average of OECD countries in elementary, secondary, and postsecondary education, with the exception of vocational postsecondary education, where there are fewer students per teacher in the United States than in most other countries.
Learning outcomes for school-age youth. On studies of mathematics and science achievement, U. Performance of fifteen year olds in the United States was similar to the average for countries participating in PISA in reading, mathematics, and science literacy tasks designed to reflect real-life situations in contrast to school curriculum. Many countries have variation in achievement in the same range as that of the United States, although some have less variation.
Some countries with relatively little variation have high achievement, indicating that it is not necessary to "sacrifice" the bottom to have a high average score. Among countries participating in the IEA Civic Education Study, the United States is among the highest in knowledge of civic content among fourteen year olds, as well as the highest in civic skills, such as interpreting information. States and nations. Because states have primary responsibility for education in the United States and are similar in size to many countries, comparisons between the states and other nations are of special interest to policymakers.
Some U. This pattern is repeated in other indicators that include both states and nations. Adult literacy. Variation in adult literacy is strongly associated with income variation—countries that have a wider income distribution also have a higher percentage of adults in both high and low-literacy groups, with the United States having the highest variation in both income and literacy. Increased demand in the mids for data to support solid comparisons among the education systems of different countries fueled major advances in the quality and quantity of international education statistics.
These advances would not have been possible without an organizational structure that incorporated collaborative working relationships among statisticians and education professionals from different countries. This model was essential throughout the many phases of the work, including agreeing on common definitions of the concepts to be represented by statistics, developing methodologies for surveys and translation, and generating commitment and adherence to high standards and quality control.
It will continue to be important to assure comparability as work proceeds to improve and broaden statistics in areas such as learning outcomes for students and adults, expenditures for education, teachers and teaching, and the relationship between education and the labor market. Washington, DC: U. Government Printing Office. I: Quantitative Analysis of Expenditure Comparability. Norberto Bottani and Albert Tuijnman. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Education Indicators: An International Perspective. A Nation at Risk. ED States with Other Industrialized Countries in Amsterdam: Eburon. Production Manager, C.
The Condition of Education Washington, DC:U. The Digest of Education Statistics The use of widely published statistical indicators also referred to as social indicators outside the purely economic realm of the condition of national education systems has in the early twenty-first century become a standard part of the policymaking process throughout the world.
Uniquely different from the usual policy-related statistical analysis, statistical indicators are derived measures, often combining multiple data sources and several statistics, that are uniformly developed across nations, repeated regularly over time, and have come to be accepted as summarizing the condition of an underlying complex process. Perhaps the best known among all statistical indicators is the gross national product, which is derived from a statistical formula that summarizes all of the business activity of a nation's economy into one meaningful number.
In the closing decades of the twentieth century, international statistical indicators of educational processes made considerable advances in quantity, quality, and acceptance among policymakers. These cross-national indicators often have significant impact on both the public and the education establishment. In the United States, for example, the New York Times gives high visibility to reports based on indicators of where American students rank in the latest international math or science tests, or those revealing how educational expenditures per student, teacher salaries, or high school dropout rates compare across countries.
National education ministries or departments frequently use press releases to put their own spin on statistical indicator reports such as the annual Education at a Glance EAG , published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD. The use of indicators for comparisons and strategic mobilization has become a regular part of educational politics. Lesley Farrell.
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