At the end of the 15th century, Portugal expelled some local Sephardic Jews , along with those refugees who had come from Castile and Aragon after In addition, many Jews were forcibly converted to Catholicism and remained as conversos. Many Jews remained secretly Jewish , in danger of persecution by the Portuguese Inquisition. In , 3, New Christians were massacred in Lisbon. On 22 April , they caught sight of land in the distance. This was the coast of what would later become the Portuguese colony of Brazil.
The real goal of the expedition, however, was to open sea trade to the empires of the east. Trade with the east had effectively been cut off since the Conquest of Constantinople in Accordingly, Cabral turned away from exploring the coast of the new land of Brazil and sailed southeast, back across the Atlantic and around the Cape of Good Hope.
Cabral reached Sofala on the east coast of Africa in July Cabral's fleet then sailed east and landed in Calicut in India in September No longer would the Muslim Ottoman occupation of Constantinople form a barrier between Europe and the east. Ten years later, in , Afonso de Albuquerque , after attempting and failing to capture and occupy Zamorin 's Calicut militarily, conquered Goa on the west coast of India.
In , Francisco de Almeida was engaged to improve Portuguese trade with the far east. Accordingly, he sailed to East Africa. Several small Islamic states along the coast of Mozambique — Kilwa , Brava and Mombasa —were destroyed or became subjects or allies of Portugal. By the 16th century, the two million people who lived in the original Portuguese lands ruled a vast empire with many millions of inhabitants in the Americas, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.
From , the Portuguese had reached China and Japan. Hormuz , in the Persian Gulf , was seized by Afonso de Albuquerque in , who also entered into diplomatic relations with Persia. In , a force under Antonio Correia conquered Bahrain and ushered in a period of almost 80 years of Portuguese rule of the Persian Gulf archipelago . East of Malacca, Albuquerque sent Duarte Fernandes as envoy to Siam now Thailand in and dispatched to the Moluccas two expeditions , , which founded the Portuguese dominion in Maritime Southeast Asia.
The Portuguese established their base in the Spice Islands on the island of Ambon.
Japan , accidentally reached by three Portuguese traders in , soon attracted large numbers of merchants and missionaries. In , one of the ships in the expedition that Ferdinand Magellan organized in the Spanish service completed the first circumnavigation of the globe.
By mid-August, the Duke was only 10 kilometers from the city. This cleared the way for Philip to create an Iberian Union spanning all of Iberia under the Spanish crown. With these titles, the Duke of Alba represented the Spanish monarch in Portugal and was second in hierarchy only after King Philip in Portugal. He held both titles until his death in The Prior of Crato held out in the Azores until , and he continued to seek to recover the throne actively until his death in Impostors claimed to be King Sebastian in , , and After the 16th century, Portugal gradually saw its wealth and influence decrease.
Portugal was officially an autonomous state, but in actuality, the country was in a personal union with the Spanish crown from to England had been an ally of Portugal since the Treaty of Windsor in , but war between Spain and England led to a deterioration of the relations with Portugal's oldest ally and the loss of Hormuz in From to , the Dutch—Portuguese War led to invasions of many countries in Asia and competition for commercial interests in Japan, Africa and South America.
In , the Dutch seized Salvador , the capital of Brazil;  in , they seized Pernambuco in northern Brazil. The Dutch intrusion into Brazil was long-lasting and troublesome to Portugal. Beginning with a major Spanish—Portuguese military operation in , this trend was reversed, and it laid the foundations for the recovery of remaining Dutch-controlled areas. The other smaller, less developed areas were recovered in stages and relieved of Dutch piracy in the next two decades by local resistance and Portuguese expeditions.
After the dissolution of the Iberian Union in , Portugal would re-establish its authority over some lost territories of the Portuguese Empire. They maintained Portugal's status, gave excellent positions to Portuguese nobles in the Spanish courts , and Portugal maintained an independent law, currency and government.
It was even proposed to move the Spanish capital to Lisbon. Because of this, as well as the general strain on the finances of the Spanish throne as a result of the Thirty Years' War , the Duke of Braganza , one of the great native noblemen and a descendant of King Manuel I, was proclaimed King of Portugal as John IV on 1 December , and a war of independence against Spain was launched.
The governors of Ceuta did not accept the new king; rather, they maintained their allegiance to Philip IV. Although Portugal had substantially attained its independence in , the Spanish continued to try to re-assert their control for the next 28 years, only recognizing the new Portuguese dynasty in In the 17th century, many Portuguese emigrated to Brazil. From , John V prohibited emigration, since Portugal had lost a sizable proportion of its population. Brazil was elevated to a vice-kingdom. John V died the following year, and his son Joseph I of Portugal was crowned.
As the king's confidence in de Melo increased, he entrusted him with more control of the state. Impressed by British economic success he had witnessed while ambassador, he successfully implemented similar economic policies in Portugal. He abolished slavery in Portugal and in the Portuguese colonies in India; reorganized the army and the navy; restructured the University of Coimbra ; and ended discrimination against different Christian sects in Portugal.
He demarcated the region for production of port to ensure the wine's quality, and this was the first attempt to control wine quality and production in Europe. He ruled with a strong hand by imposing strict law on all classes of Portuguese society, from the high nobility to the poorest working class, along with a widespread review of the country's tax system.
These reforms gained him enemies in the upper classes, especially among the high nobility, who despised him as a social upstart.
Disaster fell upon Portugal in the morning of 1 November , when Lisbon was struck by a violent earthquake with an estimated Richter scale magnitude of 9. The city was razed to the ground by the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami and fires. De Melo survived by a stroke of luck and then immediately embarked on rebuilding the city, with his famous quote: "What now? We bury the dead and feed the living. Despite the calamity, Lisbon suffered no epidemics and within less than one year was already being rebuilt. The new downtown of Lisbon was designed to resist subsequent earthquakes.
Architectural models were built for tests, and the effects of an earthquake were simulated by marching troops around the models. The buildings and big squares of the Pombaline Downtown of Lisbon still remain as one of Lisbon's tourist attractions: they represent the world's first quake-proof buildings. As his power grew, his enemies increased in number, and bitter disputes with the high nobility became frequent.
In , Joseph I was wounded in an attempted assassination. The Jesuits were expelled from the country and their assets confiscated by the crown. This was the final stroke that broke the power of the aristocracy and ensured the victory of the minister against his enemies. Based upon his swift resolve, Joseph I made his loyal minister Count of Oeiras in However, historians also argue that Pombal's "enlightenment", while far-reaching, was primarily a mechanism for enhancing autocracy at the expense of individual liberty and an apparatus for crushing opposition, suppressing criticism, furthering colonial economic exploitation, intensifying book censorship and consolidating personal control and profit.
Along the route to Madrid, the army led by the Marquis of Minas was successful in conquering Ciudad Rodrigo and Salamanca. Later in the following year, Madrid was reconquered by Spanish troops loyal to the Bourbons. Joseph refused to accept and protested that his alliance with Britain was no threat.
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In spring , Spanish and French troops invaded Portugal from the north as far as the Douro , while a second column sponsored the Siege of Almeida , captured the city, and threatened to advance on Lisbon. In , Portugal refused Napoleon Bonaparte 's demand to accede to the Continental System of embargo against the United Kingdom; a French invasion under General Junot followed, and Lisbon was captured on 8 December British intervention in the Peninsular War helped in maintaining Portuguese independence; the last French troops were expelled in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil was the Portuguese capital between and In , constitutionalist insurrections took place at Oporto 24 August and Lisbon 15 September.
Lisbon regained its status as the capital of Portugal when Brazil declared its independence from Portugal in The death of King John VI in led to a crisis of royal succession.
Dissatisfaction at Pedro's constitutional reforms led the "absolutist" faction of landowners and the church to proclaim Miguel king in February This led to the Liberal Wars in which Pedro eventually forced Miguel to abdicate and go into exile in and place his daughter on throne as Queen Maria II. The British Ultimatum was delivered to Portugal on 11 January of that year, an attempt to force the retreat of Portuguese military forces in the land between the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola most of present-day Zimbabwe and Zambia. The area had been claimed by Portugal, which included it in its " Pink Map ", but this clashed with British aspirations to create a railroad link between Cairo and Cape Town , thereby linking its colonies from the north of Africa to the very south.
This diplomatic clash lead to several waves of protest and prompted the downfall of the Portuguese government. The British Ultimatum was considered by Portuguese historians and politicians at that time to be the most outrageous and infamous action of the British against her oldest ally. After , the Portuguese expanded their trading ports along the African coast, moving inland to take control of Angola and Mozambique. The slave trade was abolished in , in part because many foreign slave ships were flying the Portuguese flag.
In Portuguese India , trade flourished in the colony of Goa , with its subsidiary colonies of Macau , near Hong Kong on the China coast, and Timor , north of Australia. The Portuguese successfully introduced Catholicism and the Portuguese language into their colonies, while most settlers continued to head to Brazil.
The First Republic has, over the course of the recent past, been neglected by many historians in favor of the Estado Novo. As a result, it is difficult to attempt a global synthesis of the republican period in view of the important gaps that still persist in our knowledge of its political history. As far as the 5 October Revolution is concerned, a number of valuable studies have been made,  first among which ranks Vasco Pulido Valente's polemical thesis. This historian posited the Jacobin and urban nature of the revolution carried out by the Portuguese Republican Party PRP and claimed that the PRP had turned the republican regime into a de facto dictatorship.
The First Republic was intensely anti-clerical. It was secularist and followed the liberal tradition of disestablishing the powerful role that the Catholic Church once held. Historian Stanley Payne points out, "The majority of Republicans took the position that Catholicism was the number one enemy of individualistic middle-class radicalism and must be completely broken as a source of influence in Portugal.
Scarcely had the provisional government been installed when it began devoting its entire attention to an anti-religious policy, in spite of the disastrous economic situation. On 10 October—five days after the inauguration of the Republic—the new government decreed that all convents, monasteries and religious orders were to be suppressed.
All residents of religious institutions were expelled and their goods confiscated. The Jesuits were forced to forfeit their Portuguese citizenship. A series of anti-Catholic laws and decrees followed each other in rapid succession. On 3 November, a law legalizing divorce was passed and then there were laws to recognize the legitimacy of children born outside wedlock, authorize cremation, secularize cemeteries, suppress religious teaching in the schools and prohibit the wearing of the cassock.
In addition, the ringing of church bells to signal times of worship was subjected to certain restraints, and the public celebration of religious feasts was suppressed. The government also interfered in the running of seminaries, reserving the right to appoint professors and determine curricula.
This whole series of laws authored by Afonso Costa culminated in the law of Separation of Church and State, which was passed on 20 April A republican constitution was approved in , inaugurating a parliamentary regime with reduced presidential powers and two chambers of parliament. Even the PRP had to endure the secession of its more moderate elements, who formed conservative republican parties like the Evolutionist Party and the Republican Union.
In spite of these splits, the PRP, led by Afonso Costa , preserved its dominance, largely due to a brand of clientelist politics inherited from the monarchy.
Nevertheless, an essay by Vasco Pulido Valente should be consulted a , as should the attempt to establish the political, social, and economic context made by M. Villaverde Cabral The PRP viewed the outbreak of the First World War as a unique opportunity to achieve a number of goals: putting an end to the twin threats of a Spanish invasion of Portugal and of foreign occupation of the African colonies and, at the internal level, creating a national consensus around the regime and even around the party. Quite the opposite occurred: existing lines of political and ideological fracture were deepened by Portugal's intervention in the First World War.
Sidonismo , also known as Dezembrismo "Decemberism" , aroused a strong interest among historians, largely as a result of the elements of modernity that it contained. The state carved out an economically interventionist role for itself while, at the same time, repressing working-class movements and leftist republicans.
The monarchy's restoration was proclaimed in the north of Portugal known as the Monarchy of the North on 19 January , and four days later a monarchist insurrection broke out in Lisbon. After a series of clashes the monarchists were definitively chased from Oporto on 13 February This military victory allowed the PRP to return to government and to emerge triumphant from the elections held later that year, having won the usual absolute majority. The president used his new power to resolve a crisis of government in May , naming a Liberal government the Liberal party being the result of the postwar fusion of Evolutionists and Unionists to prepare the forthcoming elections.
Afonso Costa - Alchetron, The Free Social Encyclopedia
These were held on 10 July , with victory going, as was usually the case, to the party in power. However, Liberal government did not last long. There could be no greater demonstration of the essential fragility of the Republic's institutions and proof that the regime was democratic in name only, since it did not even admit the possibility of the rotation in power characteristic of the elitist regimes of the nineteenth century. A new round of elections on 29 January inaugurated a fresh period of stability: the PRP once again emerged from the contest with an absolute majority.
Discontent with this situation had not, however, disappeared. Numerous accusations of corruption, and the manifest failure to resolve pressing social concerns wore down the more visible PRP leaders while making the opposition's attacks more deadly. At the same time, moreover, all political parties suffered from growing internal factionalism, especially the PRP itself.
The party system was fractured and discredited. This is clearly shown by the fact that regular PRP victories at the ballot box did not lead to stable government. Between and , there were forty-five governments. The opposition of presidents to single-party governments, internal dissent within the PRP, the party's almost non-existent internal discipline, and its desire to group together and lead all republican forces made any government's task practically impossible. Many different formulas were attempted, including single-party governments, coalitions, and presidential executives, but none succeeded.
Force was clearly the sole means open to the opposition if the PRP wanted to enjoy the fruits of power. Historians have emphasized the failure and collapse of the republican dream by the s. Sardica summarizes the consensus of historians:. By the mids the domestic and international scenes began to favour another authoritarian solution, wherein a strengthened executive might restore political and social order. Since the opposition's constitutional route to power was blocked by the various means deployed by the PRP to protect itself, it turned to the army for support. The political awareness of the armed forces had grown during the war, and many of their leaders had not forgiven the PRP for sending them to a war they did not want to fight.
Links were established between conservative figures and military officers, who added their own political and corporative demands to the already complex equation. As had been the case in December , the population of Lisbon did not rise to defend the Republic, leaving it at the mercy of the army. There are few global and up-to-date studies of this turbulent third phase of the Republic's existence. A historiographical balance sheet by Armando Malheiro da Silva identifies three main interpretations.
For some historians the First Republic was a progressive and increasingly democratic regime. For others it was essentially a prolongation of the liberal and elitist regimes of the 19th century. Parnaso brasileiro : cem poetas contemporaneos by Afonso Costa Book 11 editions published between and in 3 languages and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Commercio exterior by Afonso Costa Book 5 editions published in in Portuguese and Undetermined and held by 34 WorldCat member libraries worldwide.
Servulo Dourado : homenagem das classes maritimas ao seu grande amigo 2 editions published in in Portuguese and held by 32 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. A marinha mercante o problema da actualidade by Afonso Costa 3 editions published in in Portuguese and held by 27 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Versos by Afonso Costa 2 editions published in in Portuguese and held by 21 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. O Ensino e minha attitude na Camara dos Deputados by Afonso Costa 2 editions published in in Portuguese and held by 21 WorldCat member libraries worldwide.
University of Lisbon faculty
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Filipe Ribeiro de Meneses. Book Format: eBook. Digital delivery to your. Walmart eBooks App. Sold by Kobo. Product Highlights Portugal's poor military performance in the First World War, notably in Africa, restricted Afonso Costa's ability to secure his diplomatic aims which, in any case, were highly unrealistic. Nevertheless, his loyal press in Portugal described him as the 'leader of the small nations', and r. About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information.
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