Hoping an easy victory against the enemy, they failed to notice Normans fleet just outside the coast, carrying Turquetils army. As the battle was about to start, Normans made a surprise landing behind enemy lines and attacked them in the back, breaking enemy morale. Soon, the Hospitallers were as defeated as the Templars. Survivors retreated to Figurig, where they were finally defeated. Normans still lost soldiers, both to the enemy armies and to the attrition. The army was but half size of the 20 soldiers who sailed from Iberia. Still can't understand what Kabylia was doing there, but you don't look gift Normans in the mouth.
Or you might be kicked in the face. Anyway, this is the end of Hospitallers End of the War Meanwhile, Doge of Tlemcen had been sieging Fes and they were ready for assault. It had taken them nearly 2 month to set up siege towers, use catapults to weaken the walls and bring enough ladders to the battle. Turquetils army sailed to meet them, finishing off final army of Leon on their way.
Incidentally, once again outside Ronda. Finally, in December , Fes fell into Norman hands and final province of the Duchy was under Norman control and the fighting in both Iberia and Africa died off, due to Leon having no-one willing to fight the Normans left. Norman main army sailed across the Mediterranean, to fight rebels in Tyrus.
Then, they sailed to Istria in Northern Italy, to fight another rebel army. Meanwhile, Holy Roman Empire had been gathering strength, and in the the spring of , they crossed the Alps with 2 armies. Well, one crossed the Alps, other started the siege of Grisons, the furthest foothold of Normans in the Alps. Turquetils main army, reinforced with fresh soldiers from Palermo, was sailing north to meet them when Queen Benita finally folded.
Germans coming south again. In July , she offered a peace, giving up her newly conquered Duchy and all the claims of Africa. Turquetil made it another merchant republic. The end of war Of Conversions Slowly, steadily, few provinces per year, Cathar faith spread. Sicily was now half Cathar, and several other provinces all over the Empire were embracing their new faith as well. Most notable was the conversion of Rome that took place in November , while still at war with Leon. Rome is good Cathar now.
I must say, this was one of the most challenging wars i have fought lately. HRE and Templars and Hospitallers and tough terrain with good fortresses. It took 2 years to get it done. Nikolai- yes, they are worthy enemies. Chief Ragusa- Can't revoke, they're not under me. Can't declare war on them. Can't force them to convert. Guess they'll be just hanging around the Holy Land indefinately.
BogMod- oh, forgot to say something about Byzantines- they've lost some lands to infighting, their capital is somewhere in Asia Minor, bordering the infidels, but they are still strong. You won your war though at greater cost than in previous wars. I think it will be common for your HRE enemy to have templar and Hospitaller contingents whenever they fight the Hauteville Empire.
I'm perturbed that you can't remove the Orders from your heretical lands. Perhaps there's an event that fires to announce that they're leaving.. If you could just persuade the Duke of Ferrara to secede or defect, you could remove a rather unsightly lump of grey from your Italy lands either through absorbtion or conquest. Rather shocked to see Rome convert.
More then a match to de Hautevilles and too eager to show it in battlefields all over Europe. The truce between Emperor Turquetil and Kaiser Leopold did not stop the Kaiser from fighting the Emperor in several wars, though Kaiser refrained from declaring war of some kind to Turquetil and fighting him directly, preferring to have the shame of inevitable defeat to fall on the shoulders of others. Turquetil did not forgive or forget though. Being an honourable man, he waited until the truce was over, but the very next day, Leopold was in for some pounding, Norman style.go site
interlude in ravenna short stories Manual
The Holy War for Ferrara In April , just a few days after the year truce expired, Turquetil declared war on Holy Roman Empire, claiming to take the province from the heretic Kaiser. Since the provinces were small, poor and not really heavily defended, only 10 Normans from Palermo went on initial assault. First reports of German troops marching south came in September. Turquetil quickly order rest of his personal demesne to arms and reinforced the main army that had taken control of Urbino and marched on to Ancona to meet with reinforcements, making Norman army to total 21 soldiers.
Three German armies closing in on captured Duchy By November, the 3 provinces of Ferrara were under siege by the Germans. Ferrara was relieved first, with Normans beating the Germans in the battle of Ferrara. Next was 11 Germans in Ravenna, of them met their end. By then, the war was won, but Turquetil had one final battle in mind before forcing the Kaiser to give up.
In the beginning of January , in the battle outside Forli, last of the German armies was destroyed, with less then surviving from original 10 This war had cost the Germans lives of 24 soldiers, plus the ones lost due to desertion, diseases and such, while Norman toll, with even the losses during sieges and such, was definitely under 10 , perhaps around 7 or 8. And the sad fate of three armies In January , Kaiser Leopold was forced to give up Ferrara and declare Sicily as his superior.
Turquetil turned Ferrara into another merchant republic. Italy was becoming more and more Norman and less German with every war. Italy is more and more green and less and less grey War for Benevento Simplicitus, who later became known as loser of Rome, reason why Cathars evolved and overall failure, was replaced by new Pope, Hilarius II. In January , Tuqruetil claimed that the Barony would be much better in Hauteville hands and on behalf of his relative, Duke Osmond I, he went to war with Papacy, claiming a thorn that had been in de Haueville territory since the beginning. War ended in February, with Trapani once again falling to Norman assault and Pope signing the treaty.
The war that lasted for a whole month Of Other Things The Great Keeps in all the castles of Palermo were finished, making Palermo even stronger, tougher to conquer not that anyone with sane mind would even dream of invasion to Norman heartland and making the levies even more numerous. But that was not all- all over Sicily and Calabria, castles started to finish their construction. Castle of Caltabellotta in Girgenti was the first to finish, then Taormina in Messina, and others were finishing their constructions.
Monreale, the main castle of Hautevilles and Caltabellotta, first of fully upgraded other Siclian castles A last free holding was built in Catanzo- a city of Crotone. No more land for new holdings, though enough to improve the older ones. Overall, Norman rulers have built 2 additional castles in Palermo, a city in Trapani, a castle in Girgenti, a city and a castle in Siracusa, a city and a castle in Messina, a bishopric and a city in Malta, and cities in both Reggio and Catanzaro.
Caliph Danismend did his best to destroy the Shia Caliphate, though most likely that was not his intention. He lost most of the lands that Fatimids, his predecessors, had been proud rulers of, but managed to keep the Seljuk lands, inherited from his grandfather, Arslan the Great, Sultan of Seljuks, intact. How will his rule be? The New and Better Caliph. After all, you can't do much worse job then Danismend, right. Holy Roman Ass needs quite more kicks to be kicked out of Italy, but we're more then halfway there! Cheif Ragusa- i fully expect to see more Holy Orders.
But the enemies need to have good piety in order to recruit the buggers and HRE doesn't seem to be fan of the Holy Orders. Guess they think they have enough troops themselves. As for Holy Land holdings of the Orders- if things keeps up, i'll just mod them buggers off. As for Ferrara- it seems we think in similar ways. Last edited: Aug 17, Blog Entries: 0 Joined: Apr 23, Messages: 3. But not anymore. Kaiser Leopold once again defeated, borders secure and no-one in the West daring to meet Normans in the field of battle, it was time to turn attention to East once again.
Emirate of Cairo, consisting of Cairo and a few surrounding provinces, had been independent for quite some time. Cairo was once a proud capital of Fatimid Empire, but that was more then century ago. Now, it was not much more then the usual province town. Yes, rich, wealthy province town, but unimportant nevertheless. The Sultanate of Egypt, their neighbour, was currently fighting against Shia Caliphate, so no allies as well. This was was going to be fought differently then the usual Norman was though.
Desert provinces that would not be able to sustain large armies and well-defended castles meat it was going to be series of sieges, at least as soon as the first battles were fought and won.
In June, 20 Normans landed in Alexandria. Since even that army was too big, were left behind while the rest marched towards Cairo. Emir Quadin had meanwhile prepared his own armies and the enemies met in Gizeh, in a field of battle next to the pyramids. The battle that decided the war: Emir's army beaten Then, Normans followed the enemy back to Cairo, beat them, left half the troops behind and started the siege.
Meanwhile, Normans that were left behind to Alexandria marched to Asyut and took the province under siege. Another were stationed in Gizah, in order to keep both armies supported if need arises. The boring siege part, with standing as reinforcements After that, there was not much else to the war but boredom.
Emir managed to enlist some troops and sent them to certain death in desperate attempt to stop the Normans, but with no success.
Other Muslim rulers were busy with their own realms and did not intervene. Basically, it was 2 years of boredom and one very stupid assault that cost the lives of Normans until in August , Emire Quadin decided that he could not stand against the Normans and signed peace, giving up the Duchy.
Normans, descendants of Vikings from the North and Baltic sea, who had made themselves masters of the Mediterranean sea, now found something else- a Red Sea, trade routes to India and access to the Indian Ocean. Normans to the Red Sea! When the Muslims hoped that the new Caliph would do much better job then Danismend I, their hopes were squashed.
The already-splintered Shia Caliphate, plus the lands of Seljuk Turks his ancestors did their best to conquer had been thrown down into small and not so small states. Egypt was one of the first to claim their independence, and while there were still wars going on, most of them were winning. World record in destroying the realm. Muslim world, seeing one defeat after another, their villages burning, their cities looted, their brothers in faith thrown out from the west, despaired.
The end of the world was soon upon them, they said. The rich lands of Shia Caliphate were looted, burned, some desolate, for warring parties had massacred the locals and then did that again. All Middle East was engulfed in flames Even more scary and blood-thirsty then the Normans. As you can see, i've not forgotten that de Hautevilles must expand in all directions So little time and so much war to do And the fall of Shia is quite spectacular!
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I'll let the natural causes to end his reign and then think of things i can do to screw up that huge gray blob. As for mongols- soon, soon! Winter is c Bermond Montanari, G. Ravenna e il porto di Classe. Venti anni di ri- cerche archeologiche tra Ravenna e Classe Fonti e studi, 7 , Imola. Berti Ceroni, L. Dalla ricerca scientifica alla fruizione turistica, Roma, 9— Bollini, M.
Brown, T. Budriesi, R. Caliri, E. Squarci di storia agraria siciliana nel V se- colo d.
Christie, N. From Constantine to Charlemagne. An archaeology of Italy, AD —, Aldershot. Gibson Cirelli, E. Ravenna e Classe nel VI secolo. San Severo il tempio ritrovato, eds. Bertelli, Milano, — Bertelli, Milano, 45— Corcoran, T. The Roman fishing industry of the late Republic and early Empire, diss. Northwestern University. Cosentino, S. Curtis, R. Garum and salsamenta. Production and commerce in materia medica Studies in ancient medicine, 3 , Leiden. Deichmann, F. Kom- mentar, 3. Geschichte, Topographie, Kunst und Kultur, Stuttgart. Deliyannis, D. Mauskopf Ravenna in late antiquity, Cambridge.
Dewing, H. Procopius, vol. Fabbri, G. Fabbri, P. Fabbri, Ravenna, 11— Fasoli, G. Frassineti, G. Gelichi, S. Giacomini, P. Gillett, A. Grig, L. Kelly eds. Two Romes. Rome and Constantinople in Late An- tiquity, Oxford. Gunn, J. The years without summer. Tracing A. Horden, P. Purcell The corrupting sea.
A study of Mediterranean his- tory, Oxford. Johnson, M. The later Roman Empire, — A social, economic, and administrative survey, 1, Oxford. Keay, S. Late Roman amphorae in the western Mediterranean. Laven, P. Bergier, St. Katharinen, — Lazard, S. MacGeorge, P. Late Roman warlords, Oxford. Magnani, S. Mauro, Ravenna, 25— Maioli, M. Carile, Ravenna, — Mauro, Ravenna, — Mauro, Ravenna, 37— Stoppioni Classe e Ravenna fra terra e mare.
Gli scavi nella zona archeologica di Classe, Ravenna. Malmberg, S. Dazzling dining. Banquets as an expression of imperial legit- imacy, Diss. Birk, T. Poulsen, Oxford, — Malnati et al. Sassatelli, A. Augenti, M. Bertelli, Milano, 33— Mansuelli, G. Manzelli, V. Mauro, Ravenna, 45— Marazzi, F. Production, distribution and demand The transformation of the Roman world, 3 , eds. Mauro, M. Novara eds. Mura, porte e torri di Ravenna, Ravenna. Mazza, M. McCormick, M. Late antiquity: Empire and successors A. Origins of the European economy.
Communications and commerce AD , Cambridge. The Gothic history of Jordanes. In English version with an in- troduction and a commentary, Princeton. Montevecchi, G. Montevecchi, Ravenna, 20— Murialdo, G. Negrelli, Mantova, 9— Neri, V. Ortalli, J. Palmer, R. Patitucci Uggeri, S. Il porto romano e le flotte Col- lana Archeologia e architettura ravennate, 2 , ed. Mauro, Ravenna. Prati, L. Prati, Bologna, 32— Purcell, N. Da capitale imperiale a capitale esarcale.
Mare nostrum. Reynolds, P. Trade in the western Mediterranean, AD The ceramic evidence, Oxford. Ripoll, G. Gurt eds. Sedes regiae ann. Roncuzzi, A. Veggi Roxan, M. Holder Saddington, D. Erdkamp, Oxford, — Somekh, A. Squatriti, P. Starr, C. This was clamped to the edge of the pier and lowered into the water, then brought up regularly to recover a few small fish, generally of a silver anchovy kind. Rob bought a whole load the other day, after being shown by the stallholder how to fillet them — a time consuming chore!
Fishing from Lido di Volano pier. The clocks changed on Sunday 27 th March, and Rob marked the event by getting up to see the sun rise over the Adriatic at 7 a. The sun soon burnt off all that though and we had a lovely morning relaxing in the heat, before moving on to Ferrara in the afternoon. Volano - Po Delta fishing platforms. We stopped at Pomposa Abbey and Tresigallo on the way, both interesting in their own way. Pomposa Abbey was once one of the most important Benedictine monasteries in Italy, and although less than half of the complex remains, you can see it was once pretty extensive.
Inside the basilica the frescoes are very good. We particularly like the ones from Revelations, with their weird lion-headed men riding horses and multiple snake-headed deer things. Abbazia di Pomposa. Wondering if this was some sort of planned town, we headed into the centre to investigate. Our hunch was correct. The whole centre was remodelled in the s following modernist architectural principals to create an agro-industrial centre.
Its development halted with the outbreak of the war and large parts of the town remain pretty much as conceived by the architect. Tresigallo - s modernist town. On Sunday evening we joined the handful of other motorhomes parked in the huge free carpark in Ferrara, where we had an undisturbed night. This dampened our enthusiasm and, coupled with the fact that all the palaces and museums, bar the castle, are closed on a Monday, rather coloured the appeal of this city. The land here is dead flat except for the high man-made dykes that run alongside the river, and a narrow but driveable road snakes along the top of these.
To our left was the broad, slow river and muddy plantations of trees, and to the right we looked down on a succession of small villages, large flat fields and not a few belching industrial plants. Several newish aree di sosta have been set up along this route, and we stopped for the night on the one at Castelmassa.
The polizia locale came and checked us out, but were impeccably polite. River Po near Ostiglia. Smaller and more compact than Ferrara, and with a tighter concentration of attractive squares and sights than Ravenna, it was also more geared to tourism but this hardly mattered, as it just looked so good.
Its appeal is enhanced too by the lakes that almost surround the old town, and people were out enjoying the warm weather in the waterside parks.
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As in Ravenna and Ferrara, it is a city where huge numbers of people cycle, which for me Rob is the very epitome of civilisation. It is another town with a vast Ducal Palace, more a self-contained complex than a building, that looms over the lakeside in a jumble of towers and loggias. Inside, the tour led through a warren of halls and galleries of sumptuous decoration, but after two hours started to feel like something of an endurance test. In one of the best rooms, colourful friezes depicted the ruling Gonzaga family in the 15 th century, a raw representation of power and wealth where dukes mixed with cardinals and kings, and three generations of grim-looking men and boys in Renaissance dress stared haughtily out.
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