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Style Herb Ritts: L. Style traces the life and career of the iconic photographer through a compelling selection of renowned, as well as previously unpublished, photographs and two insightful essays. Greg Gorman, Vol. Email Address. Recommended Reading: Hollywood Glamour Photography. Upcoming Appearances Coming Soon Subscribe for Updates Enter your email address to receive notifications of new posts by email. Search for:. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Albertus Magnus discovered silver nitrate , Georg Fabricius discovered silver chloride, the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials.

Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in ; the fiction book Giphantie , published in , by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche , described what can be interpreted as photography. Around the year , British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance, he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in that "the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver.

The shadow images darkened all over. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out post-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more light-sensitive resin , but hours of exposure in the camera were still required. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy. Sabattier effect The Sabattier effect known as pseudo-solarization, is a phenomenon in photography in which the image recorded on a negative or on a photographic print is wholly or reversed in tone.

Dark areas appear light areas appear dark. Solarization and pseudo-solarization are quite distinct effects.

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Over time, the "pseudo" has been dropped in many photographic darkroom circles and discussions, but the effect, meant is the Sabattier effect and not the solarization by extreme overexposure; the term "solarization" was used to describe the effect observed in cases of extreme overexposure of the photographic film or plate in the camera. The effect generated in the dark room was called pseudo-solarization.

Spencer defines the Sabattier effect as: "Partial image reversal produced by brief exposure to white light of a developed silver halide image". Many other ways of chemical and actinic radiation "exposure" can be utilised for the partial image reversal; the use of chemicals for image reversal is known as'chemical fogging '. The reversal may be partial or complete, depending on the relative magnitude of the first and second exposures; the Pseudo-solarization effect was described in print by H.

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It was described again in by L. Rutherford and C. Seely, separately, in successive issues of The American Journal of Photography, in the same year by Count Schouwaloff in the French publication Cosmos. French scientist Armand Sabatier published 26 October a process of obtaining direct positives, but according to the description, this process did not seem to have any connection with the Sabattier effect as no mentioning was made of any exposure of the collodion plates after development had started; the name of the author was erroneously spelled with double "t" and thus the effect is hence known as the Sabattier effect in most literature.

Sabatier described the phenomenon in However, Sabatier could not find an explanation for the phenomenon; the effect was caused by accidentally exposing an exposed plate or film to light during developing. The artist Man Ray perfected the technique, accidentally discovered in her darkroom by fellow artist Lee Miller , it is evident from publications in the 19th century that this phenomenon was discovered many times by many photographers as it tends to occur whenever a light is switched on inadvertently in the darkroom while a film or print is being developed.

Whereas many photographic effects have been researched and explained in such a way that most researchers agree upon them, the Sabattier effect does not belong to that group. In general the following facts are accepted by the community of photographic researchers: The assumption that the Sabattier effect can be attributed to the Solarization effect can be overruled; the opinion that the Sabattier effect is a direct print-through effect of the silver produced by the first development on the below situated layers can not suffice to explain the effect.

It has been shown that exposing a photographic layer thru the base displays the Sabattier effect. Moreover, chemical fogging is proof that copier effect is only marginal in producing the Sabattier effect. Oxidation products produced during the first development at the developed grains cannot cause a desensibilisation of the unexposed grains, it is difficult to envision that the silver produced during the first development has a desensibilitating influence on the first developed grains. However this point must be further researched. Although with commercial photographic materials the speed of development of the latent image of the second exposure is greater than that of the first development, it cannot be the determining factor for the Sabattier effect.

Several researchers assume that the development of a latent interior image as result of the first exposure thus affecting negatively the surface "specks" caused by the second exposure can explain the Sabattier effect. One of these researchers, Dr. Junge, published an explanation for the Sabattier effect as follows:The photographic material suitable for pseudo-solarizing should have a low tendency to produce surface specks; this is achieved by prohibiting the chemical maturity during manufacturing.

During the first exposure therefore only internal grain specks are produced; the first development will destroy the tendency to produce internal grain specks so that after the second exposure grain surface specks are produced. These are only produced on grains; the reason for this is that during the second exposure electrons emerge which are much faster caught by the stable and big internal grain specks than they can serve to build new and smaller surface grain specks. The second development in a surface developer will now attack those grains which remained unchanged by the first exposure so that an image reversal will occur; the fact that instead of a second exposure electron donating systems can be added to the second developer supports this theory.

Careful choice of the amount of light used and the precise moment in development to provide the additional exposure gives rise to different outcomes. However, pseudo-solarization is difficult to manage to yield consistent results; as a guide, an exposure of one second to a 25 watt incandescent lamp at two metres distance at around the end of the first minute of a 2-minute devel. Vignetting In photography and optics , vignetting is a reduction of an image's brightness or saturation toward the periphery compared to the image center.

The word vignette , from the same root as vine referred to a decorative border in a book; the word came to be used for a photographic portrait, clear at the center and fades off toward the edges. A similar effect is visible in photographs of projected images or videos off a projection screen, resulting in a so-called "hotspot" effect. Vignetting is an unintended and undesired effect caused by camera settings or lens limitations.

However, it is sometimes deliberately introduced for creative effect, such as to draw attention to the center of the frame. A photographer may deliberately choose a lens, known to produce vignetting to obtain the effect, or it may be introduced with the use of special filters or post-processing procedures; when using superzoom lenses, vignetting may occur all along the zoom range, depending on the aperture and the focal length.

However, it may not always be visible, except at the widest end. In these cases, vignetting may cause an exposure value difference of up to 0. There are several causes of vignetting. Sidney F. Ray distinguishes the following types: Mechanical vignetting Optical vignetting Natural vignettingA fourth cause is unique to digital imaging: Pixel vignettingA fifth cause is unique to analog imaging: Photographic film vignetting Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams emanating from object points located off-axis are blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, improper lens hoods; this has the effect of changing the entrance pupil shape as a function of angle.

Darkening can be gradual or abrupt — the smaller the aperture, the more abrupt the vignetting as a function of angle; when some points on an image receives no light at all due to mechanical vignetting this results in a restriction of the field of view — parts of the image are completely black. This type of vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multiple element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease in light intensity towards the image periphery.

Optical vignetting is sensitive to the lens aperture and can be cured by a reduction in aperture of 2—3 stops. Unlike the previous types, natural vignetting is not due to the blocking of light rays; the falloff is " cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Here, the light falloff is proportional to the fourth power of the cosine of the angle at which the light impinges on the film or sensor array. Wideangle rangefinder designs and the lens designs used in compact cameras are prone to natural vignetting. Telephoto lenses, retrofocus wideangle lenses used on SLR cameras, telecentric designs in general are less troubled by natural vignetting.

A gradual grey filter or postprocessing techniques may be used to compensate for natural vignetting, as it cannot be cured by stopping down the lens; some modern lenses are designed so that the light strikes the image parallel or nearly so, eliminating or reducing vignetting.

Pixel vignetting only affects digital cameras and is caused by angle-dependence of the digital sensors. Light incident on the sensor at normal incident produces a stronger signal than light hitting it at an oblique angle. Most digital cameras use built-in image processing to compensate for optical vignetting and pixel vignetting when converting raw sensor data to standard image formats such as JPEG or TIFF ; the use of offset microlenses over the image sensor can reduce the effect of pixel vignetting. For artistic effect, vignetting is sometimes applied to an otherwise un-vignetted photograph and can be achieved by burning the outer edges of the photograph or using digital imaging techniques, such as masking darkened edges; the Lens Correction filter in Photoshop can achieve the same effect.

In digital imaging, this technique is used to create a low fidelity appearance in the picture. Dodging and burning Feathering Flat-field correction Metering mode Vignette Van Walree's webpage on vignetting uses some unorthodox terminology, but illustrates well the physics and optics of mechanical and optical vignetting. Peter B. Aesthetics Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of art and taste and with the creation or appreciation of beauty.

In its more technical epistemological perspective, it is defined as the study of subjective and sensori-emotional values, or sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. Aesthetics studies how artists imagine and perform works of art, it studies how they feel about art—why they like some works and not others, how art can affect their moods and attitude toward life.

The phrase was coined in English in the 18th century. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art and nature". The term "aesthetics" was appropriated and coined with new meaning by the German philosopher Alexander Baumgarten in his dissertation Meditationes philosophicae de nonnullis ad poema pertinentibus in Aesthetics, a not tidy intellectual discipline, is a heterogeneous collection of problems that concern the arts but relate to nature.

Even though his definition in the fragment Aesthetica is more referred to as the first definition of modern aesthetics. Aesthetics is for the artist; some separate aesthetics and philosophy of art, claiming that the former is the study of beauty while the latter is the study of works of art.

However, most Aesthetics encompasses both questions around beauty as well as questions about art, it examines topics such as aesthetic objects, aesthetic experience, aesthetic judgments.

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For some, aesthetics is considered a synonym for the philosophy of art since Hegel , while others insist that there is a significant distinction between these related fields. In practice, aesthetic judgement refers to the sensory contemplation or appreciation of an object, while artistic judgement refers to the recognition, appreciation or criticism of art or an art work. Philosophical aesthetics has not only to speak about art and to produce judgments about art works, but has to give a definition of what art is.

Art is an autonomous entity for philosophy, because art deals with the senses and art is as such free of any moral or political purpose. Hence, there are two different conceptions of art in aesthetics: art as knowledge or art as action, but aesthetics is neither epistemology nor ethics. Aestheticians compare historical developments with theoretical approaches to the arts of many periods, they study the varieties of art in relation to their physical and culture environments.

Aestheticians use psychology to understand how people see, imagine, think and act in relation to the materials and problems of art. Aesthetic psychology studies the creative process and the aesthetic experience. Aesthetics examines our affective domain response to an object or phenomenon Judgments of aesthetic value rely on our ability to discriminate at a sensory level. However, aesthetic judgments go beyond sensory discrimination. For David Hume , delicacy of taste is not "the ability to detect all the ingredients in a composition", but our sensitivity "to pains as well as pleasures, which escape the rest of mankind.

For Immanuel Kant , "enjoyment" is the result when pleasure arises from sensation, but judging something to be "beautiful" has a third requirement: sensation must give rise to pleasure by engaging our capacities of reflective contemplation. Judgments of beauty are sensory and intellectual all at once. Kant observed of a man "If he says that canary wine is agreeable he is quite content if someone else corrects his terms and reminds him to say instead: It is agreeable to me," because "Everyone has his own taste"; the case of "beauty" is different from mere " agreeableness " because, "If he proclaims something to be beautiful he requires the same liking from others.

Roger Scruton has argued similarly. Viewer interpretations of beauty may on occasion be observed to possess two concepts of value: aesthetics and taste. Aesthetics is the philosophical notion of beauty. Taste is a result of an education process and awareness of elite cultural values learned through exposure to mass culture. Bourdieu examined how the elite in society define the aesthetic values like taste and how varying levels of exposure to these values can result in variations by class, cultural background, education.

According to Kant, beauty is universal. Soft focus In photography, soft focus is a lens flaw, in which the lens forms images that are blurred due to spherical aberration. A soft focus lens deliberately introduces spherical aberration in order to give the appearance of blurring the image while retaining sharp edges.

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Soft focus is the name of the style of photograph produced by such a lens; because soft focus results from what are considered technical flaws spherical and chromatic aberration, many older lenses had soft focus built in as a side effect of their construction. Some lens makers, such as Pinkham-Smith and Busch Nicola Perscheid , intentionally designed lenses to take advantage of these flaws and, as color became available, chromatic aberration was less desirable, but well-managed spherical aberration was desirable.

The effect can be disabled as well, in which case the lens is sharp.

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In the mids, Leitz designed a legendary soft-focus lens, the Thambar 90mm f2. It was made in small numbers, no more than units, it is a rare collector's item today. The soft focus effect is used as an effect for glamour photography, because the effect eliminates blemishes, in general produces a dream-like image; the effect of a soft focus lens is sometimes approximated by the use of diffusion filter or other method, such as stretching a nylon stocking over the front of the lens, or smearing petroleum jelly on a clear filter or on the front element or the back element of the lens itself.

The latter is less recommended because successive cleaning always introduces a risk to damage the lens's surface, it can be approximated with post-processing procedures. Highlights in an image are blurred, but the bokeh effects of soft focus cannot be reproduced.

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Surrealism Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early s, is best known for its visual artworks and writings. Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects, developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself, its aim was to "resolve the contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality". Works of surrealism feature the element of unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris.

From the s onward, the movement spread around the globe affecting the visual arts, literature and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice and social theory; the word'surrealism' was coined in March by Guillaume Apollinaire three years before Surrealism emerged as an art movement in Paris. Parade was performed with music by Erik Satie.

Cocteau described the ballet as "realistic". Apollinaire went further, describing Parade as "surrealistic": This new alliance—I say new, because until now scenery and costumes were linked only by factitious bonds—has given rise, in Parade, to a kind of surrealism, which I consider to be the point of departure for a whole series of manifestations of the New Spirit, making itself felt today and that will appeal to our best minds.

World War I scattered the writers and artists, based in Paris, in the interim many became involved with Dada, believing that excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the conflict of the war upon the world. The Dadaists protested with anti-art gatherings, performances and art works. After the war, when they returned to Paris, the Dada activities continued.

They began experimenting with automatic writing—spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in the magazine. Breton and Soupault wrote The Magnetic Fields. As they developed their philosophy, they believed that Surrealism would advocate the idea that ordinary and depictive expressions are vital and important, but that the sense of their arrangement must be open to the full range of imagination according to the Hegelian Dialectic.

They looked to the Marxist dialectic and the work of such theorists as Walter Benjamin and Herbert Marcuse. Freud's work with free association, dream analysis, the unconscious was of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination, they embraced idiosyncrasy , while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness. I am not mad.


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Artistic photography of the naked human body. Nude study by Rudolf Koppitz Photography portal Nudity portal. The Naked and the Nude". Princeton: Princeton University Press. Retrieved Metropolitan Museum of Art. MIT Press, January ; the nude in western art and its beginnings in antiquity. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Art Journal. College Art Association.

The J.

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Paul Getty Museum. The male nude: A male view: An anthology. Zurich: Edition Stemmle. Male nudes by women: An anthology. New York: Universe. The New York Times. The Washington Post. New York Times. University of Arizona, Center for Creative Photography. Archived from the original on Edward Weston: The Form of Nude. Phaidon Press. The Museum of Modern Art. February 12, The Brooklyn Museum. Retrieved 10 November London: The Guardian. Retrieved 12 November Vanity Fair.


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Retrieved 11 November Retrieved 1 November The Last Day of Summer. Radiant Identities: Photographs by Jock Sturges. Immediate family. Michelson Galleries. PSA Journal. The Age of Innocence. Aurum Press. Los Angeles Times. Moehringer March 8, Skidmore College : — The Chronicle of Higher Education. University of Michigan. Dawes, Richard, ed. John Hedgecoe's Nude Phtotgraphy.

New York: Simon and Schuster. Lewinski, Jorge The naked and the nude: a history of the nude in photographs, to the present. Harmony Books. Cunningham, Imogen; Lorenz, Richard Imogen Cunningham: On the Body. Bullfinch Press. Booth, Alvin; Cotton, Charlotte, eds. Corpus: Beyond the Body.

Foto 50: Nudes Vol. 1, Naked Model Photos & Glamour Photography Foto 50: Nudes Vol. 1, Naked Model Photos & Glamour Photography
Foto 50: Nudes Vol. 1, Naked Model Photos & Glamour Photography Foto 50: Nudes Vol. 1, Naked Model Photos & Glamour Photography
Foto 50: Nudes Vol. 1, Naked Model Photos & Glamour Photography Foto 50: Nudes Vol. 1, Naked Model Photos & Glamour Photography
Foto 50: Nudes Vol. 1, Naked Model Photos & Glamour Photography Foto 50: Nudes Vol. 1, Naked Model Photos & Glamour Photography
Foto 50: Nudes Vol. 1, Naked Model Photos & Glamour Photography Foto 50: Nudes Vol. 1, Naked Model Photos & Glamour Photography
Foto 50: Nudes Vol. 1, Naked Model Photos & Glamour Photography Foto 50: Nudes Vol. 1, Naked Model Photos & Glamour Photography
Foto 50: Nudes Vol. 1, Naked Model Photos & Glamour Photography Foto 50: Nudes Vol. 1, Naked Model Photos & Glamour Photography
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